Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/b-r-gjat ~ b-g-rjat

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *b-r-gyat = *(b-)g-ryat (Matisoff, STEDT); *b-rgyat (Benedict, 1972); *b-r-gyat  (LaPolla, 1987).

This is a doubly prefixed root, justified mainly by Written Tibetan, Jingpho and Rgyalrong forms. As expected, this root was particularly prone to metathesis and preemption. The Chinese form, for example, shows preemption of the rest of the initial cluster by the labial prefix, resulting in a *pr- > p- initial. It appears that the root for "hundred" (*b-r-gja) was influenced by "eight", despite the fact that these two numerals are not neighbours in linear order.

Numeral[edit]

Proto-Sino-Tibetan numerals
ONE *ʔit
*kat
*tjak ~ g-t(j)ik
TWO *g/s-ni-s
THREE *g-sum
FOUR *b-ləj
FIVE *l/b-ŋa
SIX *d-(k-)ruk
SEVEN *s-ni-s
EIGHT *b-r-gjat ~ b-g-rjat
NINE *d/s-kəw
TEN *gip
*ts(j)i(j) ~ tsjaj
TWENTY *(m-)kul
HUNDRED *b-r-gja
THOUSAND *s-toŋ
  1. eight

Descendants[edit]

  • (Old) Chinese: /*preːd/ (ZS)
    • Middle Chinese: /pɯæt/

         Japanese:   (はち, hachi)
            Korean:   (pal) (, pal)
            Vietnamese:  bát

      • (Modern) Mandarin:
        • Beijing: /pa˥/
        • Tianjin: /pa˨˩/
        • Jinan: /pa˨˩˧/
        • Xi'an: /pa˨˩/
        • Chengdu: /pa˨˩/
        • Kunming: /pa˧˩/
        • Wuhan: /pa˨˩˧/
        • Hefei: /pɐʔ˥/
      • Jin:
        • Taiyuan: /paʔ˨/
        • Pingyao: /pɐ̞ʔ˩˧/
      • Wu:
        • Suzhou: /poʔ˥/
        • Shanghai: /pa̞ʔ˥/
        • Hangzhou: /pa̞ʔ˥/
        • Wenzhou: /po˨˩˧/, /puɔ˨˩˧/
      • Xiang:
        • Changsha: /pa˨˦/
        • Loudi: /pa˩˧/
      • Gan:
        • Nanchang: /pal˥/
      • Hakka:
        • Meixian: /pat̚˨/
      • Cantonese:
        • Guangzhou: /pat̚˧/
        • Taishan: /pat̚˧˧/
    • Min:
      • Amoy: /pat̚˧˨/, /pueʔ˧˨/
      • Puxian: /pe˩˩/
      • Fuzhou: /paiʔ˨˧/
  • Kamarupan
    • North Assam
      • Tani
      • Deng
    • Kuki-Chin:
      /*riat/ ("eight")
      • Peripheral Chin
        • Northern Chin
        • Southern Plains Chin
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai (Mizo): /riat/
      • Maraic
      • "Old Kuki"
    • "Naga"
      • Northern Naga
      • Central Naga (Ao Group)
        • Ao (Mongsen): /tsʰət/
      • Angami-Pochuri Group
      • Zeme Group
      • Tangkhulic:
        /*ʃɐt/ ("eight")
    • Meithei
    • Mikir
    • Mru
    • Bodo-Garo = Barish
    • Chairel
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Western Himalayish
        • Kanauri: /ræ/
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • (Written) Tibetan: བརྒྱད (brgyad, eight)
            • (Modern) Tibetan [Lhasa]: /cɛˀ˩˨/
      • Lepcha
      • Tamangic
      • Dhimal
    • Newar
    • Mahakiranti
      • Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwar
      • Kiranti
        • Eastern Kiranti = Rai
        • Western Kiranti
          • Bahing: /ja/
        • Dumi: /ri/
        • Thulung: /let/, /jet/
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • Tangut
    • Qiangic
    • rGyalrongic
      • Ergong (Danba): /ʐɣiɛ/
      • Caodeng: /kə́-rkjet/
      • rGyalrong (Maerkang): /wə rjɑt/
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: matsat (eight)
    • Nungic
      • Anong: /əʃat/
    • Asakian
  • Tujia
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese:
      /*ʔ-ritᴸ/ ("eight")
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရှစ် (hrac, eight)
          • (Modern) Burmese [Rangoon]: /ʃɪʔ/
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hxit, eight)
        • Central Loloish
        • Southern Loloish
    • Naxi
  • Karenic:
    /*khrɔtᴰ ~ grɔtᴰ/ (Luangthongkum, 2013)
  • Bai

See also[edit]