Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/duk ~ tuk

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *dəkw (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *duk ⪤ *tuk (Matisoff, STEDT; Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972)


  1. poison; poisonous, toxic; to poison


  • Old Chinese: /*dˁuk/ ("poison"), /*m-dˁuk-s/ ("to poison") (B-S); /*duːg/ (PW)
    • Middle Chinese: /duok/

         Japanese:   (どく, doku)
            Korean:   ‎(dok) (, dok)
            Vietnamese:  độc

         Vietnamese:  nọc ‎(venom, poison) (?)

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /tu³⁵/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /tʊk̚²/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /d̻ʊ̆ʔ¹²/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /tʰaʊ³³/ (colloquial, "to poison"), /tok̚⁵/ (literary, "toxin, toxic")
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: དུག ‎(dug, poison, toxin), གདུག ‎(gdug) / གདུག་པ ‎(gdug pa, vicious, evil, harmful, poisonous)
            • Modern Tibetan (Lhasa): /tʰuʔ˩˧˨/ ("poison")
      • Lepcha: ᰌᰨᰭ ‎(dok, ill) (?)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      /*ʔdok/ (Matisoff, 1972)
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: တောက် ‎(tauk, to suffer from toxicity, to be ill; to be poisonous)
      • Loloish
        /*dokᴸ/ (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): ‎(ddut, poison; to be poisoned)