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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *glyəp (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *g-r(y)ap (Matisoff, STEDT); *g-ryap (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987); *g-ryɑp (Chou, 1972)



  1. to stand


  • Old Chinese:
    /*k.rəp/ (B-S); /*rɯb/ (ZS) ("to stand")
    /*ɢʷrəp-s ‹ *ɢʷəʔ-rəp-s ?/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (?), invalid IPA characters (‹*?) (B-S); /*ɢʷrɯbs/ (ZS) ("standing, position, seat")
    • Middle Chinese: /liɪp/; /ɦɣiuɪH/ invalid IPA characters (H)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (lì, /li⁵¹/); (wèi, /u̯eɪ̯⁵¹/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /lɐp̚², lɑːp̚²/; /wɐi²²/
  • Kamarupan
    • North Assam
      • Tani
        /*rop/ ("stand up, get up") (Sun, 1993)
    • "Naga"
      • Northern Naga
        /*gyap/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ ("stand") (French, 1983)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: ཞབས (zhabs, foot (honorific)) (ed.)
      • Tamangic
        /*ᴮʰrat, *ᴮʰrap/ invalid IPA characters (ᴮ*ᴮ) ("stand") (Mazaudon, 1994)
    • Kiranti
      /*ryap- ~ ryam/ ("stand") (Opgenort, 2011)
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: tsap (stand)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      /*ʔ-rapᴸ/ invalid IPA characters (ᴸ) ("stand") (Matisoff, 2003)
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရပ် (rap, stand upright, stop)
      • Loloish
        /*ʔ-ryapᴸ/ invalid IPA characters (ᴸ) ("stand up") (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hxit, stand, stand up)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Southern): ꓦꓰꓼ (è, stand, stand up, stand straight)

See also[edit]