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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *njaɣ (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *na-ŋ (Matisoff, STEDT); *naŋ ⪤ **na (LaPolla, 1987)

Compare Old Japanese ( (na, you)), Middle Korean (ne, “you”).



  1. you (second-person singular pronoun)


  • Old Chinese:
    , /*naʔ/ (B-S); /*njaʔ/ (ZS) ("you (sg.)")
    /*nˁəʔ/ (B-S); /*nɯːʔ/ (ZS) ("your (sg.)")
    /*neʔ/ (B-S); /*njelʔ/ (ZS) ("you (sg. & pl.)")
    /*nə/ (B-S); /*njɯ/ (ZS) ("you, your")
    /*nɯʔ/ (ZS) ("you") (colloquial variant)
    /*nuŋ/ (B-S); /*njuŋ/ (ZS) ("you")
    (*nak (B-S); *njag (ZS), you)
    • Middle Chinese: , (ȵɨʌX), (nʌiX), (ȵiᴇX), (ȵɨ), (?), (ȵɨuŋ), (ȵɨɐk)
      (All of these survive as readings in compounds or in literary texts in modern dialects. Listed below are the colloquial words for "you" which are ultimately from this PST etymon.)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /ni²¹⁴/) ("you, thou")
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /nei¹³/ ("you, thou")
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /nʊ̆ŋ²³/ ("you, thou")
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: , /li⁵¹/ ("you")
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      /*naŋ/ (VanBik, 2009)
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: nang (you (sg.)), nangni (you (pl.))
  • Tangut-Qiang
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: nang (you)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      /*naŋ¹/ ("2nd person pronoun")
      • Burmish
        • Burmese: နင် (nang, you (intimate, impolite)), နင့် (nang., your; you (intimate, impolite)), ညည်း (nyany:, you (used among women))
      • Loloish
        /*naŋ¹/ (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (ne, you (sg.)), (no, you (pl.))
        • Central Loloish
  • Karenic:

See also[edit]

  • *ŋa (I (first-person singular pronoun))