Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/na-ŋ

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *njaɣ (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *na-ŋ (Matisoff, STEDT); *naŋ ⪤ **na (LaPolla, 1987)

Compare Old Japanese ( (na, you)), Middle Korean (ne, “you”).

Pronoun[edit]

  1. you (second-person singular pronoun)

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese:
    , /*naʔ/ (B-S); /*njaʔ/ (ZS) ("you (sg.)")
    /*nˁəʔ/ (B-S); /*nɯːʔ/ (ZS) ("your (sg.)")
    /*neʔ/ (B-S); /*njelʔ/ (ZS) ("you (sg. & pl.)")
    /*nə/ (B-S); /*njɯ/ (ZS) ("you, your")
    /*nɯʔ/ (ZS) ("you") (colloquial variant)
    /*nuŋ/ (B-S); /*njuŋ/ (ZS) ("you")
    /*nak/ (B-S); /*njag/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ (ZS) ("you")
    • Middle Chinese: , /ȵɨʌX/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ȵ), invalid IPA characters (ȵX), /nʌiX/ invalid IPA characters (X), /ȵiᴇX/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ȵᴇ), invalid IPA characters (ȵᴇX), /ȵɨ/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ȵ), invalid IPA characters (ȵ), /?/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (?), invalid IPA characters (?), /ȵɨuŋ/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ȵ), invalid IPA characters (ȵ), /ȵɨɐk/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ȵ), invalid IPA characters (ȵ)
      (All of these survive as readings in compounds or in literary texts in modern dialects. Listed below are the colloquial words for "you" which are ultimately from this PST etymon.)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /ni²¹⁴/) ("you, thou")
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /nei¹³/ ("you, thou")
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /nʊ̆ŋ²³/ ("you, thou")
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: , /li⁵¹/ ("you")
  • Kamarupan
    • Kuki-Chin
      /*naŋ/ (VanBik, 2009)
      • Central Chin
        • Lushai [Mizo]: nang (you (sg.)), nangni (you (pl.))
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho [Kachin]: nang (you)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      /*naŋ¹/ ("2nd person pronoun")
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: နင် (nang, you (intimate, impolite)), နင့် (nang., your; you (intimate, impolite)), ညည်း (nyany:, you (used among women))
      • Loloish
        /*naŋ¹/ (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (ne, you (sg.)), (no, you (pl.))
        • Central Loloish
  • Karenic:

See also[edit]

  • *ŋa (I (first-person singular pronoun))