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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *shwiʔ (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-hywəy-t (Matisoff, STEDT); *s-hwiy (Benedict, 1972); *(s-)h(y)wə[ː]y  (French, 1983); *s-hwiy(*B) (Coblin, 1986)

This word now means "marrow" in some Tibeto-Burman languages. Chinese (suĭ < OC *s-lojʔ, "marrow") has also been (possibly incorrectly) assigned as a reflex of this root.


  1. blood


  • Old Chinese: /*qʰʷiːg/ (ZS), /*m̥ˁik/ (B-S) ("blood")
    • Middle Chinese: /hwet/
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: ("blood") (literary: xuè, /ɕɥ̯œ⁵¹/; colloquial: xiě, /ɕi̯ɛ²¹³/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
      • Lepcha: ᰟᰧ(vi, blood)
    • Newar
      • Newar (Dolakhali): हि(hi, blood)
      • Newar (Kathmandu): हि(hi, blood)
    • Mahakiranti
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: သွေး(swe:, blood, disposition, spirit)
      • Loloish
        /*swe²/ (Bradley, 1979; Weidert, 1987)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (sy, blood)
  • Karenic:
    /*swiᴮ/ (Luangthongkum, 2013)

See also[edit]