Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-maŋ ~ s-mak

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *s-mak ⪤ s-maŋ (Matisoff, 1983); *smək (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-maŋ ⪤ *s-mak (Matisoff, STEDT)


*s-maŋ ~ s-mak

  1. black
  2. dark
  3. ink
  4. deep


  • Old Chinese: /*C.mˁək/ (B-S); /*mlɯːg/ (ZS) ("ink"); /*m̥ˁək/ (dial. *m̥ˁ- › xˁ-) (B-S); /*m̥lɯːg/ (ZS) ("black")
    ( in the oracle bone script) 黑-bronze.svg
    • Middle Chinese: /mək/, /hək/

         Japanese:   (ぼく, ​boku)
            Korean:   (, muk)
            Vietnamese:  mặc

         Vietnamese:  mực ‎(cuttlefish; ink)
            Thai:  หมึก ‎(mèuk, ink), ปลาหมึก ‎(bplaa mèuk, cuttlefish)
            Lao:  ມຶກ ‎(mưk, ink; black), ຫມຶກ ‎(mưk, black; ink), ໝຶກ ‎(mưk, sepia from cuttlefish; ink; black)
            Khmer:  មឹក ‎(mɨk, squid; ink)

         Japanese:   (こく, ​koku)
            Korean:   (, heuk)
            Vietnamese:  hắc

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /mu̯ɔ⁵¹/), (hēi, /xeɪ̯⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi

See also[edit]

  • *s-nak ‎(black) - a similar root; possibly descendant of this etymon, from assimilation of the root initial (in place of articulation) by the prefix *s-.