Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *mun/rmun (Coblin, 1986), *mun ~ s-mun (Chou, 1972)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-mun (Matisoff, STEDT)



  1. dark, dim, dusky, blurred
  2. dusk, evening, darkness
  3. dull, stupid, confused
  4. sad, sulky


  • Old Chinese:
    /*mɯːns/ (ZS) ("melancholy, depressed; dull, stupid")
    /*m̥ˁun/ (B-S), /*m̥ɯːn/ (ZS) ("dusk, evening; dark; confused, bewildered")
    > /*m̥ɯːn/ (ZS) ("to marry; marriage")
    (traditionally (since Han Dynasty) regarded as a derivation from , so named since marriage ceremonies took place at dusk in ancient times; may be folk etymology instead)
    /*m̥ɯːn, *m̥ɯːns/ invalid IPA characters (*) (ZS) ("muddled, confused")
    /*m̥ɯːn/ (ZS) ("drizzly, misty")
    /*mɯns/ (ZS) ("disorderly, confused, tangled")
    perhaps also
    /*moːnʔ, *muːnʔ, *muːns/ invalid IPA characters (**) (ZS) ("sullen, sulky, resentful")
    /*m̥ˁut/ (B-S), /*m̥ɯːd/ (ZS) ("careless, confused; disorderly; dim, blurred; rapid; sudden") (Baxter/Sagart, 1998)
    /*m̥ɯːd, *mɯd/ invalid IPA characters (*) (ZS) ("dawn, daybreak; dark")
    • Middle Chinese: /muənH/ invalid IPA characters (H), , , /huən/, /huən, huənX, huənH/ invalid IPA characters (XH), /mɨunH/ invalid IPA characters (H), /muɑnX, muənX, muənH/ invalid IPA characters (XXH), /huət/, /huət, mɨut/

         Japanese:   (こん, ​kon)
            Korean:   (, hon)
            Vietnamese:  hôn

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (mèn, /mən⁵¹/, "depressed, in low spirits"; mēn, /mən⁵⁵/, "tightly closed, suffocating, muffled"), (mèn, /mən⁵¹/, "to stew"), , , , (hūn, /xu̯ən⁵⁵/), (wěn, /u̯ən²¹⁴/), (mèn, /mən⁵¹/), , (, /xu⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi

See also[edit]