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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *mun/rmun (Coblin, 1986), *mun ~ s-mun (Chou, 1972)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-mun (Matisoff, STEDT)



  1. dark, dim, dusky, blurred
  2. dusk, evening, darkness
  3. dull, stupid, confused
  4. sad, sulky


  • Old Chinese:
    (*mɯːns (ZS), melancholy, depressed; dull, stupid)
    (*m̥ˁun (B-S), *m̥ɯːn (ZS), dusk, evening; dark; confused, bewildered)
    > (*m̥ɯːn (ZS, to marry; marriage)
    (traditionally (since Han Dynasty) regarded as a derivation from , so named since marriage ceremonies took place at dusk in ancient times; may be folk etymology instead)
    (*m̥ɯːn, *m̥ɯːns (ZS), muddled, confused)
    (*m̥ɯːn (ZS), drizzly, misty)
    (*mɯns (ZS), disorderly, confused, tangled)
    perhaps also
    (*moːnʔ, *muːnʔ, *muːns (ZS), sullen, sulky, resentful)
    (*m̥ˁut (B-S), *m̥ɯːd (ZS), careless, confused; disorderly; dim, blurred; rapid; sudden) (Baxter/Sagart, 1998)
    (*m̥ɯːd, *mɯd (ZS), dawn, daybreak; dark)
    • Middle Chinese: (muənH), , , (huən), (huən, huənX, huənH), (mɨunH), (muɑnX, muənX, muənH), (huət), (huət, mɨut)

         Japanese:   (こん, ​kon)
            Korean:   (, hon)
            Vietnamese:  hôn

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (mèn, /mən⁵¹/, "depressed, in low spirits"; mēn, /mən⁵⁵/, "tightly closed, suffocating, muffled"), (mèn, /mən⁵¹/, "to stew"), , , , (hūn, /xu̯ən⁵⁵/), (wěn, /u̯ən²¹⁴/), (mèn, /mən⁵¹/), , (, /xu⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi

See also[edit]