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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *niəm/nyəm (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-nyam ("think"), *nyam ("see") (Matisoff, STEDT)

Compare Proto-Austronesian *nemnem ‎(to think) (Sagart, 1993) (~ doublet *demdem ‎(to think)) (> Paiwan (Kulalao) ki-nemnem ‎(to think, to cogitate), Kavalan anem ‎(heart, mind, conscience), Javanese angrem ‎(sit brooding)), Khmer ចំណាំ ‎(cɑmnam, to remember, to keep in mind; memory, remembrance) (< ចាំ ‎(chăm)) (Schuessler, 2007).


  1. to think
  2. mind, thought


  • Old Chinese: /*nˁim-s/ (B-S), /*nɯːms/ (ZS) ("to think of, to miss; to show love for; to read aloud"); 無念 /*m.nˁim-s/ (B-S; unlisted) ("to think of"); /*nəmʔ/ (B-S), /*njɯmʔ/ (ZS) ("to think of, to long for")
    • Middle Chinese: /nemH/, /ȵiɪmX/

         Japanese:   (ねん, nen)
            Korean:   ‎(nyeom) (, nyeom)
            Vietnamese:  niệm

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (niàn, /ni̯ɛn⁵¹/), (rèn, /ʐən⁵¹/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan

See also[edit]