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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]


In Proto-Slavic, and probably Proto-Indo-European, many onomatopoeic sounds ended in */k/; for example:

This caused the suffix *-k- to be reinterpreted as having expressive/onomatopoeic meaning.

Cognate with Lithuanian -ke-, -kėti, Latin -ic- (as in e.g. fod-ic-ō) and Ancient Greek -κα- (-ka-).



  1. Creates onomatopoeic verbs denoting an action of mimicking a sound in the root.
    *ble!*blekati, *blečǫ/*blekajǫ (to sound like a sheep)
    *kra!*krakati, *kračǫ (to sound like a crow)
    *kva!*kvakati, *kvačǫ/*kvakajǫ (to sound like a frog, crow or duck)
  2. Creates expressive and emotionally colored verbs.
    *bakati, *bakajǫ (to shout, scold, chatter) : *bajati (to speak, order, bewitch)
    *blǫkati, *blǫkajǫ (to loiter, wander) : *blǫditi (id.)
    *brukati, *brukajǫ (to soil, pollute) : *bruditi (id.)
    *čakati, *čakajǫ (to wait) : *čajati/*čati, *čajǫ (id.)
  3. (by extension, from the previous meaning) Creates hypocoristic and and diminutive verbs.
    *běžati (to run, quickly move)*běžьkati, *běžьkajǫ (to walk, run) (of children)
    *bosti, bodǫ (prickle, prick)*bodьcati, *bodьcajǫ (to often lightly poke)

Related terms[edit]

  • *-čati (parallel formation with the same meaning)

Derived terms[edit]



  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974) Słownik prasłowiański (in Polish), volume I, Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk, page 49f