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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *kom or *ku, *kʷom

Compare Sogdian [script needed] (kw/ku, to), Sanskrit कम् (kám) (postposition particle, after datives), Avestan 𐬐𐬄𐬨 (kąm, for sake of).

Also compare Old Latin quom (with), Latin cum, com-, con-, co-, cum-, Oscan com-, kúm, com-, co-, ku-, Old Irish co-, com- (with), Gaulish com-, co-. But usually they are derived from Proto-Indo-European *ḱom.



  1. (with dative) to, towards
    Synonym: *do
    Antonym: *otъ

Usage notes[edit]

Because of the law of open syllables, the final -n was normally dropped. But when combined with a stem that (originally?) began with a vowel, it was attached to the following word.

See also[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Belarusian: к (k)
    • Russian: к (k), ко (ko)
    • Ukrainian: к (k), ік (ik), ґ (g), іґ (ig)
    • Old Novgorodian: ко (ko)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: къ ()
    • Bulgarian: към (kǎm)
    • Macedonian: кон (kon)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: к, ка
      Latin: k, ka
    • Slovene: k, h
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: k, ke, ku
    • Old Polish: k
      • Polish: ku
    • Slovak: k, ku
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: k
      • Lower Sorbian: k


  • Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page *kъ(n)
  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “к”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Trubačev O. N., Moscow: Progress
  • Černyx, P. Ja. (1999), “к, ко”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, 3rd reprint edition, Moscow: Russkij jazyk, page 362
  • Trubačev O. N., editor (1987), “*kъ(n)”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 13, Moscow: Nauka, page 170
  • Šanskij, N. M. (2004), “к”, in Školʹnyj etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [School Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), Moscow: Drofa