Appendix:Austro-Asiatic Swadesh lists

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This is a Swadesh list of Austro-Asiatic languages, specifically Khmer, Mon, Vietnamese, Chewong, Central Nicobarese, Khmu, Khasi and Santali, compared with that of English.

This list includes:

  • Khmer — Cambodia; Khmer branch
  • Mon — Eastern Burma/Myanmar; Monic branch
  • Vietnamese — Vietnam; Vietic branch
  • Chewong (Ceq Wong) — Malaysia; Aslian branch
  • Central Nicobarese — Nicobar Islands; Nicobarese branch
  • Khmu — Central (Bolikhamxay province)-Northern Laos, Northwestern Vietnam, Southwestern China, Northeastern Myanmar, Northern Thailand; Khmuic branch
  • Khasi — Meghalaya, India; Khasic branch
  • Santali — Jharkhand and West Bengal, India; Munda branch




List[edit]

No. English Khmer Romanized
Khmer
Mon Romanized
Mon
Vietnamese Chewong Central
Nicobarese
Khmu Khasi Santali
1 I ខ្ញុំ kɲom အဲ oa tôi (polite), tao (vulgar) ʔiŋ cha oːʔ nga
2 you (singular) លោក (polite), អ្នក louk, neak ဗှေ် pèh mày (derogatory) mɨ̃ʔ me meː (man), baː (woman) me (m.)pha (f), phi (polite) am
3 he គាត់ (polite), គេ koat, kei ဍေံ deh (derogatory) ʔuh gɤː u ac', uni
4 we យើង yəəŋ ပဲို poi ta (incl.), various forms based on mình (inlc. & excl. polite) or tao (excl. vulgar) hɛʔ (incl.),
jaʔ (excl.)
iːʔ (more than two persons), aːʔ (two persons) ngi abo (incl.), ale (excl.)
5 you (plural) ពួកអ្នក puək neak (various forms based on mày - all derogatory) jin bɒː (more than two persons), sbaː (two persons) phi ape
6 they ពួកគេ puək kee ညး ɲɛ̀h (various forms based on - all derogatory) gən nɒː (more than two persons), snaː (two persons) ki, i unkin, ako
7 this នេះ nih ဏံ nɔˀ này daʔ giː, ggiː, an.giː kane niạ, nui
8 that នោះ nuh တေံ teˀ ấy, đó nũʔ gniːʔ (this closed to the second person), gnaːi (apart from, but near to both the first and second persons), ghoːʔ (apart and far from both the first and second persons) kato ona, uni
9 here អាយ ʔaay အနံ ənɔˀ đây handaʔ da giː(closed to and around the speaker), da xiː(kʱiː)(specific and very closed to the point that the speaker specifies). hangne no̲ṇḍe̲
10 there នាយ niey အတေံ əteˀ đó hanũʔ, hantoy da niːʔ(closed to the second person), da naːi(apart from, but near to both the first and second persons), da hoːʔ (apart and far from both the first and second persons). hangtei o̲ṇḍe̲
11 who អ្នកណា, នរណា neak naa, nɔɔnaa  ? ɲɛ̀h-kòh ai biʔ ʔay mɤːʔ (who), mɤːɦ mɤːʔ (who is) uei cele, o̲ko̲e
12 what អ្វី ʔvǝy မူ mòˀ (cái) coʔ hmoːɦ (what), mɤːɦ hmoːɦ (what is) kaei cet', oka
13 where នៅឯណា nɨv ʔae naa အလှဵု əlɒ ở đâu hɑ̃n da mɤːʔ hangno
14 when អង្កាល់ (Sanskrit) ʔɑŋkaal ဆောဝ်လအ် chəlɔˀ khi nào pon ɲaːm mɤːʔ, weːlaː mɤːʔ haba tire, tis
15 how ម្ដេច, យ៉ាងដូចម្តេច mdəc သာ်လဵု həlɒ sao cin nɛːo mɤːʔ, doŋ mɤːʔ, ʔjaːŋ mɤːʔ kumno cekate
16 not ទេ tei không həʔ am (eastern Khmuic), pɯɦ (western Khmuic in some areas) ym ba
17 all គ្រប់ krup သီု sɒm tất cả hnũn tam.loːɲ, pa loːɲ, pa tam.loɲ (when ended by "ɲ", "ɟ" can be used as an alternative, ex: tam.loːɟ) baroh jo̲to̲, sanam
18 many ច្រើន craən ဂၠိုၚ် klàŋ nhiều bsoʔ maːk (for people, animals and things), gɯːʔ, gɯːʔ gɯːr (for people only) shibun ạḍi
19 some ខ្លះ klah mấy dɨl laːŋ, laːŋ cam.nuːan, moi cam.nuːan kino-kino-ruh ado̲m
20 few តិច təc အောန် on ít kanɛ̃t dɛk.kɒːiɲ, ɲɛːʔ.kɒːiɲ, khyndiat thoṛa
21 other ដទៃ, ទៀត dɑtey, tiət တၞံ kənɔh khác paləʔ gbaŋ ar, eṭak'
22 one មួយ (១) muəy မွဲ (၁) mòa một nɑ̃y hēang moːi wei mit'
23 two ពីរ (២) pii ၜါ (၂) ba hai ber âṅ kbaːr, baːr ar bar
24 three បី (៣) bəy ပိ (၄) pɔeˀ ba pɛt lōe kpe or kpeʔ, pe or peʔ lai pe̲
25 four បួន (៤) buən ပန် (၅) pɔn bốn pɑn fōan puːl saw pon
26 five ប្រាំ (៥) pram မသုန် (၆) məsɔn năm limãʔ tanai pɯːaŋ san mo̲~ṛe̲~
27 six tɒːl
28 seven teːl
29 eight taːm
30 nine kaːi
31 ten gal
32 big ធំ tʰom ဇၞော် hnòk lớn, to mnɨ̃ʔ hnam ba khraw maraṇ
33 long វែ vɛɛŋ ဒၠိၚ် klòiŋ dài jsɨŋ chaling waːŋ bajrong jeleń
34 wide ល្ហ, ស្រឡះ lhɑɑ, srɑlah သၠဲ hloa rộng mnɨ̃ʔ waːɦ ba iar
35 thick ក្រាស់, ជុក krah, cuk တီု tɒm dày tbəl (Malay) hɯm.bɯl ba rben osar, phaelao
36 heavy ធ្ងន់ tŋʊən သ္ဇိုၚ် sàŋ nặng ɲũt ktam ba khia hamal
37 small តូច tooc ဍောတ် dot nhỏ, hiʔɔ̃y ɲɛːʔ ba rit huḍiń, kạṭic'
38 short ខ្លី kləy ဂၠေံ klèˀ ngắn cinhũɛ̃t liːad ba lyngkot khaṭo̲
39 narrow ចង្អៀត cɑŋʔiet က္ဍန် dɔn hẹp, chặt gac sgɛːb ba khim
40 thin ស្ដើង sdaəŋ တြဳ krɔe mỏng stal hɯn.daːʔ ba stang
41 woman ស្រី srǝy ဗြဴ prɛ̀a gái koŋ enkâna cɯm.kɯn kynthei maejiu
42 man (adult male) ប្រុស (Sanskrit), បុរស (Sanskrit) proh, boʔrɑh တြုံ kraoh trai tuŋkal cɯm.brɒːʔ rangbah he̲re̲l
43 man (human being) ជន (Sanskrit), មនុស្ស (Sanskrit) cʊən, mɔnuh မၞိဟ် nìh người biʔ, briʔ kɯm.hmuːʔ(human or person opposite to animal and thing, it is also the original name of Khmuic minority), gon(used in general, such as referring to person or persons of any minority or nation; ex: gon kɯm.hmuːʔ (Khmu person/s or Khmu people), gon ɟɛːʔ Laːo(person/s of Lao minority ), gon ɟɛːʔ Hmoŋ (Hmong person/s), gon ɟɛːʔ jum.briː(Mlabri person/s), gon ɟɛːʔ ciːn(Chinese), gon ɟɛːʔ viːed.nam(Vietnamese)) briew ho̲ṛ
44 child កូន koon ကွေန် kon con wɔŋ kōan kɒːn (son/s or dother/s), kɒːn.ɲɛːʔ (general child/children) khun ho̲po̲n
45 wife ប្រពន្ធ (Sanskrit) prɑpʊən ဗြဴ prɛ̀a vợ jəʔ kɯm.braːʔ ka tnga bạhu, era
46 husband ប្តី (Sanskrit) pdəy တြုံ kraoh chồng teʔ gleːʔ u tnga jãwãe
47 mother ម៉ែ mae မိ mìˀ mẹ, (Southern) mɔ̃y, mɛ̃p chīa-enkâna maːʔ mei ayoo, eṇga, go̲
48 father ឳពុក ʔəv puk , taˀ, mɛ̀ˀ bố, cha, ba (Southern) bap chīa-enkòiña joŋ kpa apa, baba
49 animal សត្វ (Sanskrit) sat တိရစ္ဆာန် (Pali) tɔeˀròtchan thú nataŋ (Malay) toː, sad (when ended by "d", "t" can be used as an alternative, ex: sat) mrad janwar (Hindi)
50 fish ត្រី trəy က kaˀ kiəʔ kâa kaːʔ dohkha hako
51 bird បក្សី baksəy ဂစေံ həcem chim kawaw kamōe siːm sim sim
52 dog ឆ្កែ cʰkae ကၠဵု klɜ chó ʔɛ̃ŋ âm sɒːʔ ksew seta
53 louse ចៃ cay စဲ coa chấy, rận marɨɲ, cɛʔ se (in head hair of persons), hɯm.brinɲ (in clothes), tma (on dogs and pigs, and on the places they lie or lay on) jynrein
54 snake ពស់; អហិ (Sanskrit) pʊəh, ʔaʔheʔ ဇြုံ sùm rắn talon meyūha mar bsein biń
55 worm ដង្កូវ dɑŋkəv မြုန် pərùn sâu, giòi, trùng caceŋ (Malay) lami-chüta waːk wieh
56 tree ដើមឈើ daəm cʰəə ဆု chuˀ cây jəhũʔ chīa-oñīhaṅ tuːd s.ɒːŋ dieng dare
57 forest ព្រៃ prey ဂြိုပ် krɜ̀p rừng brtɛʔ briːʔ khlaw bir
58 stick ឈើ, រំពាត់ cʰəə, rumpoat လေံ lèˀ gậy, cây, gổ maliʔ cɛo.rɛo, s.ɒŋ cɛo.rɛo (thinner and smaller), tɯl.meːl (ticker and bigger) diengduh ṭheṇga
59 fruit ផ្លែ; ផល (Sanskrit) plae, pʰɑl သတ် sɔt trái ploʔ pleːʔ soh jo̲
60 seed ពូជ (Sanskrit) puuc , မ ဗၞး mɛ̀ˀ, mɛ̀ˀ həne hạt kyaŋ klɒːŋ symbai itạ
61 leaf ស្លឹក slǝk သၠ hlaˀ haleʔ dai hlaːʔ sla sakam
62 root ឫស rɨh ရိုဟ် rɜ̀h rễ jəʔes yiah riːaɦ tynrai re̲he̲t'
63 bark (of a tree) សំបក sɑmbɑɑk သၞံက် hənok vỏ ktəʔ hɯm.pɒːk snep
64 flower ផ្កា pkaa ပ္ကဴ kao bông bkɑw shīh raːŋ syntiew baha
65 grass ស្មៅ smav ကၟတ်, ချဲ kəmot, choa cỏ  ? shen cid brɛːd phlang ghãs
66 rope ខ្សែ ksae ဇုက် cɜ̀k dây taliʔ (Malay) tanōka cmɤʔ (any kinds of ropes and vines), kaːd (old Khmuic, it was referred to any kind of vines which was still attached in earth and still alive or grow; after cutting and ready to cord or tie, it was called "cmɤʔ") tyllai baber
67 skin ស្បែក sbaek သၞာံ hnam da hoʔ ok hɯm.puːr sniehdoh harta
68 meat សាច់ sac ဖျုန် phyun thịt ʔɑy aːɦ doh jel
69 blood ឈាម cʰiem ဆီ chim máu mhə̃m maːm snam mãyãm
70 bone ឆ្អឹង cʔəŋ ဇုတ် cùt xương jəʔeŋ (ong)-eng c.aːŋ shyieng jaṇ
71 fat (noun) ខ្លាញ់ klaɲ တၠောၚ် klɔiŋ mỡ ləʔos mɤːi, om mɤːi khlein itil
72 egg ពង pɔɔŋ ခမှဲာ həmai trứng ktuət huyä kdoŋ pylleng bele
73 horn ស្នែង snaeŋ ဂြၚ် krɛ̀aŋ sừng tanok (Malay) sɯŋ.ɟɯr reng
74 tail កន្ទុយ kɑntuy ဗတ hətaˀ đuôi hateʔ kinnòk-det hɯn.taːʔ tdong caṇḍbo̲l
75 feather រោម (down) roum သော် sok lông sɔk xuːl (kʰuːl) sner il
76 hair សក់ sɑk သော် sok tóc sɔk yôk glɤːʔ shniuh up'
77 head ក្បាល (Sanskrit) kbaal ဍိုပ် dɒp đầu kuy kōi kɯm.poŋ, kam.poŋ khlieh bo̲ho̲k'
78 ear ត្រចៀក trɑciək က္တောဝ် kəto tai hntəŋ hɯr.mɤːi shkor lutur
79 eye ភ្នែក pnɛɛk မတ် mòt mắt mɛ̃t mat mad(mat) khmat me̲t'
80 nose ច្រមុះ crɑmoh မိုဟ mùh mũi mɔ̃h moah muːɦ khmut
81 mouth មាត់, ឱស្ឋ (Sanskrit) moat, ʔaoh ပါၚ် paiŋ miệng hɑɲ (oal)-fâng tnɒːɦ shyntur moca
82 tooth ធ្មេញ tmɨɲ ၚေက် ŋɛ̀ak răng lmũɲ kanâp hraːŋ bniat ḍaṭa
83 tongue (organ) អណ្ដាត ʔɑndaat လတာ် kətaik lưỡi latek kale-tâk hɯn.taːk thylliej alaṇ
84 fingernail ក្រចកដៃ krɑcɑɑk day သၞေံ hənem móng skoʔ ke-shuah tɯm.hmɒŋ tyrsim rama
85 foot ជើង cəəŋ ဇိုၚ် càŋ bàn chân cɑn lâh ɟɯːaŋ kjat jaṇga
86 leg ជើង cəəŋ ဇိုၚ် càŋ chân baŋkoʔ kəhɛr kenmōana-lâh bluːʔ pung-kjat jaṇga
87 knee ជង្គង់ cʊəŋkʊəŋ  ? bɔŋ đầu gối ktoŋ kōi-kanōng knuːn khohsiew
88 hand ដៃ day တဲ toa tay cɑs tai tiːʔ kti ti
89 wing ស្លាប slaap သၞေၚ် hneaŋ cánh prac pnɯr thapniang
90 belly ពោះ pʊəh ဗုၚ် pɜ̀ŋ bụng ʔac luːi kpoh lạc'
91 guts ពោះវៀនពោះតាំង pʊəh viən pʊəh taŋ ကြုတ် krɔt ruột ʔac war kɯn.drɯːaŋ kluːaŋ. rniːa snier
92 neck kɑɑ ကံ kɔˀ cổ lŋɛ̃ʔ kɯn.tuːar ryndang ho̲ṭo̲k'
93 back ខ្នង knɑɑŋ စး cah lưng hŋkɨŋ henkāa kɯn.drɒːŋ ing-dong dea
94 breast ដោះ dɑh တှ် tɔh , ngực buʔ toah buːʔ shadem koṛam
95 heart បេះដូង beh dooŋ ဂြိုဟ် krɜ̀h tim kaɲɛ̃s kōi-panīwa hɯr.ɲɯːam klongsnam o̲nto̲r
96 liver ថ្លើម tlaəm ဂြိုဟ် krɜ̀h gan ros ati tlɒːm dohnud
97 to drink ផឹក pʰək သုၚ် sɜŋ uống ʔuh ɯːak, ɯːaŋ (old word) dih ńũ
98 to eat ស៊ី sii cɛˀ ăn cəʔ maːɦ (used to express hangrying, wanting to have breadfast, lunch, dinner; eat or eating something; ex: oːʔ cuːʔ mɒːɦ mɒːɦ.sruːad means "I want of have breakfast", or just say "oːʔ cuːʔ mɒːɦ; oːʔ gaŋ mɒːɦ tlɒ:i means "I am eating a banana"), bɤːʔ (used to express wanting to eat something, ex: oːʔ cuːʔ.bɤːʔ pleːʔ muːaŋ means "I want to eat mango) bam jo̲m
99 to bite ចឹក (of animals) cək သ္ကိတ် kit cắn kap pok, kad dait ge̲r
100 to suck ជញ្ជក់ cʊəɲcoap သြောတ် sòt hút, ɲɔ̃k ksok kjit, buin
101 to spit ស្ដោះ sdɑh ချဟ် chɔh khạc kbac pcuɦ biah tho
102 to vomit ក្អួត kʔuət ကၠာတ် klat mửa, ối kəʔ hɯːal prie phaṭkar, ulạ
103 to blow ផាត់ (wind), ផ្លុំ (mouth) pʰat, plom ပိုက် (wind) pak thổi pət hur (general), puŋ (flute, panpipe) tied
104 to breathe ដកដង្ហើម dɑɑk dɑŋhaəm ယဳု yɜ̀m thở snjɨk toːɦ hɯːr.ɲɯːam im sahe̲t'
105 to laugh សើច saǝc ဂြိုၚ် kràŋ cười glɨk xraːiɦ (kʰraːiɦ) rkhie landa
106 to see ឃើញ kʰəəɲ ညာတ် ɲàt thấy yow guːinɲ (iːʔ guːinɲ naː means "We saw her"), jɛːŋ (means "to look", ex: iːʔ gaŋ jɛːŋ naː means "We are looking at her") iohi, khmih ńe̲l
107 to hear lɨɨ မှိၚ် mòiŋ nghe kjəŋ meiɲ (meiɟ) (to hear), hɯm.ɲɛŋ (to listen) sngap, iohsngew ańjo̲m
108 to know ចេះ ceh တီ tɛm biết harən nɤːŋ tip baḍae
109 to think គិត kɨt ချပ် chɔp nghĩ wɨ̃t tɯr.gɤd pyrkhat hudis
110 to smell ហិត, ក្លិន hət, klən ဆုၚ် chɜŋ ngửi, hưởi ʔɔ̃ɲ, haloŋ h.ɯr, hɯ.ɯr sma, iw
111 to fear ក្រែង kraeŋ ဖေက် phɔik sợ ŋɒːʔ sheptieng bo̲to̲r
112 to sleep ដេក deɛk သၠိၚ်, သ္တိက် hloiŋ, toik ngủ ʔɑm siːɦ thiah jạpit'
113 to live រស់ rʊəh ဂျိုၚ် càŋ sống gɔs dam.roŋ (to live, to spend life), jad (jat) (used for "to stay", "to live", and "to be in, on, at...") im, shong jiwe̲t'
114 to die តាយ taay ချိုတ် chɒt chết kbɨs fâh haːn iap beṇḍaok', gujuk'
115 to kill សម្លាប់ sɑmlap ဃာစိုတ် həcɒt giết kibɨs pʰaːn pyniap beṇḍao, go̲c'
116 to fight ជល់ cʊəl ဇဵု cɜ̀ chiến đấu (Chinese) lawan (Malay) tɒːʔ.suːʔ, rob (when ended by "b", "p" can be used as an alternative, ex: rop) ialeh
117 to hunt បាញ់សត្វ (liṭ "shoot animals") baɲ sat ဗက် ရပ် pɛ̀ak ròp săn pndap sɒːk piinɲ toː behmrad
118 to hit ជល់ viey တက် tɛk đánh tapɑt, hmat dɯk dal
119 to cut កាប់ kap ကုတ် kut cắt kac koɦ ge̲t'
120 to split ពុះ puh ပါ် paik chẻ blɑh (Malay) pʰaː
121 to stab ចាក់ cak ဒပက် သလၚ် həpɛk həlɛŋ đâm cɔk sɯn.tiːb, sɯn.tak, sak, plak so̲bo̲k'
122 to scratch កេះ keh ဂွါတ် kwàt cào kɑc gor raboṛ
123 to dig ជីក ciik ခဲါ khai đào bɑy xɯːaŋ (kʰɯːaŋ) la
124 to swim ហែល hael ၜိၚ် boiŋ bơi bnɛ̃ŋ (Malay?) kɯl.jɒːŋ paera
125 to fly ហើរ haǝ ပဝ် bay kapɔy tɯːr uḍạu
126 to walk ដើរ daə တွာ် kwaik đi cɨp (baləy cɑn) ɲaːŋ dãṛã, daṛan
127 to come មក mɔɔk ကၠုၚ် klɜŋ đến təs dāk gaːi (ex: "gaːi da gaːŋ" means "to come home"), wan (old word which was used oppositely to the word "weiɲ"; ex: wan da gaːŋ means "to come home", weiɲ da gaːŋ means "to go home"). East Khmuic also use "gaːi" as a meaning "return" or "turn back" ex: "gaːi da gaːŋ" can also mean "wer gaːi da gaːŋ" which measn "to return home". dela, ma
128 to lie (as in a bed) ដេក deɛk သ္တိက် toik nằm pklək siːɦ, klɯːak gitic'
129 to sit អង្គុយ ʔɑŋkuy ဒဇံ həcòˀ ngồi ŋɔk den duṛup'
130 to stand ឈរ cʰɔɔ ဒတဴ, က္တဵု hətao, kətɒ đứng hɲaɲ dɯn beret', teṇgo
131 to turn (intransitive) បត់, ងាក bɑt, ŋiek ထတး hətah quay paleŋ (Malay) wer, tao; ex1: "tao luang" or "tao blaɦ" means "to turn one end, side, or part of things"; ex2: "wer gai" or "tao gai" means "to turn back" or "to come back".
132 to fall ដួល (collapse), ចុះ (descend) duəl, coh ဒေါံ tòm rớt, rơi ras xruk (kʰruk) gur, ńũr
133 to give ឲ្យ ʔaoy ကဵု cho ʔak an de̲
134 to hold កាន់ kan ရပ် ròp cầm gɔy cab
135 to squeeze ច្របាច់, រឹត crɑbac, rɨt  ? təŋèt vắt hapit (Malay?) pɯːad
136 to rub ខាត់ kʰat တှော် taoh xát sər ruk
137 to wash កក់ kɑk ကြာတ် krat giặt soc raː(to wash body and organs of body of persons or animals, ex: "raː tiːʔ" means "to wash hands" ), kɯr.laːŋ (to wash things ex: "kɯr.laːŋ sɯn.dɛɦ" means "to wash dishes")
138 to wipe ជូត cuut ဇိုတ် cɜ̀t lau bɨl ɒːd
139 to pull ដក dɑɑ တံၚ် tɔŋ kéo tarek (Malay) ruː
140 to push រុញ ruɲ ဒရိုဟ် hərɜ̀h đẩy tolak (Malay) ɲuːd
141 to throw គប់, ចោល kup, caol ကၠဟ် klɔh chọi, ném kaloŋ hwad, klɤːi giḍi
142 to tie ចង cɑɑŋ စန် cɔn buộc, cột siat tuk
143 to sew ដេរ dee ဇိၚ် còiŋ may, khâu jayit (Malay) lɒːiɲ silại
144 to count រាប់ roap ရိုဟ် rɜ̀h đếm bilaŋ (Malay) nab lekha
145 to say ថា tʰaa ဂး, ဟီု kɛ̀h, hɒm nói bət, tlɛʔ lau me̲n, lại
146 to sing ច្រៀង crieŋ ဒယှေ် həyèh hát nəhaŋ tɤːm (sing traditional song), haːd pʰleːŋ, rɒːʔŋ pʰleːŋ (sing modern song) sereń
147 to play លេង leiŋ ဝေၚ် wòiŋ chơi nihɑʔ hɒːi, tɯɲ.hɒːi
148 to float អណ្ដែត ʔɑndaet ဂတဝ် hətɔ nổi wət pʰuː or fuː (not sink), hɯr.loːi (flow with water current or water flowing), cɤːd or cɤːd.cɤːi (to float on the sky)
149 to flow ហូរ hoo ဇွောဝ် hwò chảy wət hɯr.loːi
150 to freeze កក (frozen) kɑɑk đóng băng kloːn
151 to swell ហើម, ប៉ោង haəm, paoŋ ပေါၚ် poŋ sưng swah pʰeŋ mo̲
152 sun ថ្ងៃ tŋay တ္ၚဲ ŋoa mặt trời mɛ̃t ktɔʔ heng mad.briːʔ siń cando
153 moon ខែ kʰae ဂိတု hətaoˀ trăng kcɛʔ kâhē moŋ ńindạ cando
154 star ផ្កាយ pkaay သၞံၚ် hnɔŋ sao bintaŋ (Malay) shòk-malēcha sɯr.meinɲ ipil
155 water ទឹក tɨk ဍာ် daik nước tɑm dâk om (water or river) dak'
156 rain ភ្លៀង plieŋ ဗြဲ pròa mưa səm amiṅh kmaːʔ dak'
157 river ទន្លេ tʊənlee ၜဳ bi sông tɑm om (river or water), hroŋ (stream) gaḍa
158 lake បឹង bəŋ လှာ hla hồ  ? tʰa.leː.saːb, tʰleː.saːb (owld pronunciation)
159 sea សមុទ្រ (Sanskrit) saʔmot ၜဳ bi biển lawot (Malay) tʰa.leː, tʰleː (old pronunciation) doreão
160 salt អំបិល ʔɑmbǝl ၜဵု muối garam (Malay) shal hmaːr buluṇ
161 stone ថ្ម tmɑɑ တၟံ mɔˀ đá tmɔ̃ʔ mang-nge glaːŋ dhiri
162 sand ខ្សាច់ ksac ဗ္တဳ hətɔe cát pasir (Malay) saːi, tʰrai (old word) gitil
163 dust ធូលី (Sanskrit) tʰuulii ဖရာံ həram bụi hmɛ̃c tɯm.hmɯl
164 earth ដី dəy တိ tɔeˀ đất tɛʔ du pteːʔ hasa, o̲t
165 cloud ពពក pɔpɔɔk မတ် ဗြဲ mòt pròa mây ʔɑl mifaiṅya hɯm.puːd rimil
166 fog អ័ភ្រ ʔap လတိုပ် kətɒp sương mù ʔɑl om hɯm.puːd
167 sky មេឃ (Sanskrit) meek လကး (Sanskrit) təkah trời laŋĩt (Malay) kalahöiya hɯl.waːŋ serma
168 wind ខ្យល់ kyɑl, kcɑl ကျာ ca gió hɔŋ hâṅsh cɯn.drɤːi ho̲e
169 snow ហិមៈ (Sanskrit) heʔmeaʔ tuyết hima
170 ice ទឹកកក tɨk kɑɑ kɑɑ ဍာ် ကၠောံ daik kəlɒˀ băng tɑm batuʔ om kloːn, om graŋ
171 smoke ផ្សែង psaeŋ ယက် yɛ̀ak khói siyay ptɤːʔ dhuạ~
172 fire ភ្លើង pləəŋ ဗမတ် kəmot lửa ʔɔs heōe pʰrɯːa se̲ṇge̲l
173 ash ផេះ, កំញម pʰeh, kɑmɲɑɑm ပ္တေၚ် pətɔiŋ tro habuʔ (Malay) bɒɦ
174 to burn ឆេះ cʰeh စံၚ် cɔŋ cháy jəʔ guːiɲ je̲re̲t', lo̲
175 road ផ្លូវ pləv ဂၠံၚ klòŋ đường baləy, sbəʔ kaiyī ŋɒːr ho̲r, so̲ṛo̲k
176 mountain ភ្នំ pnum ဒဵု tɜ̀ núi mnĩm, cbɑʔ hen-yūan mok buru
177 red ក្រហម krɑhɑɑm ဗ္ကေတ် həket đỏ swət jim arak'
178 green បៃតង bay tɑɑŋ ဍာပ်ဍဴ dap dao lục blwəɲ chu-ngôa ainɲ hạriạṛ
179 yellow លឿង lɨəŋ ဍာ် မိတ် daik mìt vàng tmagaʔ (Malay?) cŋaːr
180 white sɑɑ ဗု, သ္ကိုဟ် pùˀ, kɒh trắng puteh (Malay) teyeṅ klɒːk (used with things and animals), gra (used with peson/s or people) poṇḍ, sada
181 black ខ្មៅ kmav လ္စံက် kəcɔk đen səʔɛ̃ŋ āl hiːaŋ he̲nde̲
182 night យប់ yup ဗ္တံ hətɔm tối btom hatòm psɯːam ńindạ
183 day ថ្ងៃ tŋay တ္ၚဲ ŋoa ngày ktɔʔ heng mɯːʔ(day of the month, in the past it was used for only day time), siː(old word used for day + night) mãhã, siń
184 year ឆ្នាំ cnam သၞာံ hnam năm thun (Malay) nɯm sal, ne̲s (this ~)
185 warm ក្ដៅ (hot) kdav ဂဳု kɜ̀m ấm, nóng (hot) kʔəc, bɨt (hot) h.ɯm lo̲lo̲m, urgum
186 cold ត្រជាក់, រងា trɑceak, rəŋīə ၜိုဟ်, ဂံက် bɒh, kòk lạnh sdɛc ŋar rabaṇ, reaṛ
187 full ពេញ pɨɲ ပေၚ် pɔiŋ đầy bək bush kiinɲ bi
188 new ថ្មី tməy တၟိ kəmɔeˀ mới rɛʔ hɯm.meʔ nãwã (Hindi)
189 old ចាស់ cah တြေံ တြဟ် kərem kərɔh già badɔn hmaŋ haṛam, maraṇ
190 good ល្អ lʔɑɑ ခိုဟ် khɒh tốt, ngon, hay bayek (Malay) lɤːʔ bes, bhage
191 bad អាក្រក់ ʔaakrɑk ပြေံ pəreˀ xấu həʔ mayek (Malay) leːo, am lɤːʔ bạṛic'
192 rotten រលួយ, កំពុក rɔluəy, kɑmpuk သ္အဲု ui thối soʔ h.uːʔ sea (verb)
193 dirty គគ្រិះ, ប្រឡូស kɔkrih, prɑlooh ပပ် pɔp bẩn, kamãh ɟɤːʔ mạilạ
194 straight ត្រង់ trɑŋ လ္ဂူ, သ္တပ် təkù, tɔp thẳng dŋũk chiam sgar
195 round មូល muul ခ္ဍံ hədɔm tròn twaw mon, kɒːm
196 sharp (as a knife) មុត mut သကေက် keak sắc, bén cbɨt, lut pɯr.neːd lase̲r
197 dull (as a knife) រឹល rɨl ၜီု bɒm cùn, mòn həʔ cnbɨt luiːʔ
198 smooth រាប riep တၠိတ် kəlɛt nhẵn sluc liːan, glɛɦ
199 wet ជាំ, ទទឹក coam, tɔtɨk ဍုက် dɜk ướt məʔɑ̃c skɒ lo̲ho̲t'
200 dry ប្រាំង, សង្វិត, ក្រៀម (Thai) praŋ, sɑŋvət, kriəm သ္ကဟ်, ပရောမ် kɔh, pərom khô kriŋ (Malay) sroːnɲ ro̲ho̲ṛ
201 correct មែន pɨt ဒး tɛ̀h đúng ləy ɲak, tʰrɒ sạri
202 near ជិត cɨt ဆိုက်, ညောန် chak ɲòn gần dwah leɦ sor, ṭhec'
203 far ឆ្ងាយ cŋaay သ္ၚေဲယ hòa xa con ɟaːʔ sạṇgiń
204 right ស្ដាំ sdam ပုၚ် pɜŋ phải təm blaɦ ham e̲to̲m, jo̲jo̲m
205 left ឆ្វេង cveeŋ ပဲါ pai trái yal blaɦ weːʔ leṇga
206 at នៅ (to be at) nɨv kaʔ da ṭhec'
207 in ក្នុង knoŋ trong lam (Malay) kluːaŋ (da kluːaŋ) re
208 with ជាមួយ cie muə yɔɔ với biʔ brɒːm
209 and និង nɨŋ ကဵု kab ar
210 if បើ baə nếu mɛ̃n xan (kʰan), tʰaːʔ, haːk khan
211 because ពីព្រោះ pii prʊəh sbap (Malay) jɒːr iạte
212 name ឈ្មោះ cmʊəh ယၟု cəmùˀ tên coʔ sɯŋ.mɤːɦ ńutum

Sources[edit]

  • Headley, Robert K. Modern Cambodian-English dictionary. Dunwoody Press, 1997.
  • Shorto, H.L. Dictionary of Modern Spoken Mon. London: School of Oriental & African Studies, 1962.
  • Phan Văn Giưỡng. Tuttle Compact Vietnamese Dictionary: Vietnamese-English English-Vietnamese. Tuttle Publishing, 2008.
  • Kruspe, Nicole. 2009. "Ceq Wong vocabulary" In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 871 entries. http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/26
  • Man, Edward Horace. A Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese Language. Delhi: Sanskaran Prakashak, 1975.
  • Premsrirat, Suwilai. Thesaurus of Khmu Dialects in Southeast Asia. Special Publication No. 1, Vol. 1, Mon-Khmer Studies and Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. 2002.
  • Singh, U. Nissor. English-Khasi dictionary. Delhi: Mittal, 1988.
  • Macphail, R. M. An Introduction to Santali. Calcutta: Firma KLM, 1983.
  • Campbell, A. and R. M. Macphail, ed. English-Santali Dictionary. Calcutta: Eastern Books: Sole Agents, Firma KLM, 1984.

External links[edit]

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The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription