Appendix:Ukrainian alphabet

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The Ukrainian alphabet is a variation of the Cyrillic, with 33 letters.

Historical variation[edit]

Until the official Ukrainian Orthography of 1990, the alphabetical order ended with ю, я, ь, instead of ь, ю, я. As confirmed with the publishers of the "Ukrainian Orthography", they confirmed that the book was published in New York, New York, USA. And those who helped translate the book into English were non-Ukrainians. Future publishings will include the correction of the "ь" in the correct position and order of ю, я, ь.

See also: Мій найкращий Словнии, 2nd,edition, Ukrainian Editor Orest Dubas as well Ukrainian Primer by Elias Shklanka, M.A., published by KNYHO-SPILKA in New York and the revered authority the "Pravopysnyi Slovnyk" by H. Holoskevych, First edition published in 1929, in Ukraine, then multiple times in various countries, including Canada and the U.S.A. and now the thirteenth edition in 2006, published again in Ukraine (ISBN: 966-8767-34-9) ББК 81.2УКР-4 Г61


In English-language and other Roman-alphabet sources, Ukrainian words are often romanized (transliterated into the Latin alphabet). The table below includes the most common methods of transliteration used in language references and dictionaries.

  • Scholarly transliteration (a.k.a. the scientific or linguistic method, or the international system as part of the British Standard, below) is used in linguistics and Slavic studies, and in Wiktionary (see Wiktionary:Ukrainian transliteration).
  • ALA-LC (American Library Association–Library of Congress) romanization is used in library catalogues and in general publications throughout the English-speaking world.
  • British Standard transliteration (BS 2979) was used by Oxford publications (including the OED, in etymologies), and by the British Library before 1975,[1] but has largely been superseded by ALA-LC transliteration.
  • Ukrainian National transliteration is used to derive official Roman-alphabet spellings of Ukrainian names, and has been adopted by the United Nations.

Romanization in linguistics, lexicography, bibliography, and cartography often strictly follows such a standard. It is usually relaxed for the sake of natural reading in running text, particularly for proper names. For example, in one history book:

In this book, Ukrainian place and personal names are transliterated using the simplified Library of Congress system with soft signs, apostrophes, and diacritical marks omitted throughout. The masculine ending “-yi” is shortened to “-y,” and the initial iotated vowels rendered with a “y” rather than “i.” . . . —Serhy Yekelchyk (2007), Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation, Oxford University Press, p xiii.

Table of letters[edit]

Letters of the Ukrainian alphabet
Letter Sound Romanization
upright italic (IPA) Scholarly ALA-LC British Standard Ukrainian National
А а А а [a] a a a a
Б б Б б [b] b b b b
В в В в [w]~[v] invalid IPA characters (][) v v v v
Г г Г г [h] h h g h, gh
Ґ ґ Ґ ґ [ɡ] g g g g
Д д Д д [d] d d d d
Е е Е е [e] e e e e
Є є Є є [je] je i͡e ye ie, ye
Ж ж Ж ж [ʒ] ž z͡h zh zh
З з З з [z] z z z z
И и И и [ɪ] y y ȳ y
І і I і [i] i i i i
Ї ї Ї ї [ji] ji ï yi i, yi
Й й Й й [j] j ĭ ĭ i, y
К к К к [k] k k k k
Л л Л л [l] l l l l
М м М м [m] m m m m
Н н Н н [n] n n n n
О о О о [o] o o o o
П п П п [p] p p p p
Р р Р р [r] r r r r
С с С с [s] s s s s
Т т Т т [t] t t t t
У у У у [u] u u u u
Ф ф Ф ф [f] f f f f
Х х Х х [x] x kh kh kh
Ц ц Ц ц [ts] c t͡s ts ts
Ч ч Ч ч [t͡ʃ] č ch ch ch
Ш ш Ш ш [ʃ] š sh sh sh
Щ щ Щ щ [ʃt͡ʃ] šč shch shch shch
Ю ю Ю ю [ju] ju i͡u yu iu, yu
Я я Я я [ja] ja i͡a ya ia, ya
Ь ь Ь ь [ʲ] ’, ′
”, ″
Archaic letters
Ё ё Ё ё [jo] ë ë ë
Ъ ъ Ъ ъ ”, ″
Ы ы Ы ы [ɪ] y y ȳ (ui)
Ѣ ѣ Ѣ ѣ [i] ě i͡e ê
Э э Э э [ɛ] è ė é
Ѳ ѳ Ѳ ѳ [f] f
Ѵ ѵ Ѵ ѵ [i] i
Ѧ ѧ Ѧ ѧ [ẽ] ja ę


  • Diacritics, primes, and tie bars are often dropped in running text. Primes ′ are often replaced with apostrophes ’ in print.
  • British Standard: diacritics may be omitted.
  • Ukrainian National 2012:
    1. gh is used in the romanization of зг = zgh, avoiding confusion with ж = zh.
    2. Elsewhere that two variants are shown, the second is used at the beginning of a word.

See also[edit]


  • Hryhoryi Holoskevych, “Pravopysnyi Slovnyk”, Kyiv, Ukraine, (2006), →ISBN, ББК 81.2УКР-4 Г61, 452 pp.
  • Paul Cubberly, “The Slavic Alphabets”, s 27 in Peter T. Daniels and William Bright (1996), The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, p 702.
  • Paul Cubberly, “Alphabets and Transliteration”, ch 2 of Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett (2002), The Slavonic Languages, Taylor & Francis, →ISBN, pp 55–58.
  • Peter T. Daniels and William Bright eds. (1996), The World’s Writing Systems, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Robert M. Ritter (2002), The Oxford Guide to Style, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, pp 334, 350.
  • ALA-LC Romanization Tables at the Library of Congress.
  • UNGEGN Working Group on Romanization Systems (2013), Report of the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names.[2]
  • Ukrainian Primer by Elias Shklanka, M.A.
  • Мій найкращий Словник, published by Річард Скері, Ukrainian Editor Orest Dubas.

External links[edit]

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