Appendix:Varieties of Arabic Swadesh lists

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This is a Swadesh list of Arabic languages, specifically Arabic, Gulf Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, North Mesopotamian Arabic, Sanaani Arabic, Dhofari Arabic, Cypriot Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, Sudanese Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Hassaniya and Maltese, compared with that of English. In this case, the language of Arabic refers to Standard Arabic (MSA).

Presentation[edit]

This list of words was devised by the linguist Morris Swadesh. He used it as a means of determining the closeness of any pair of languages. It is a useful list of the most common words that are essential to most languages (and may be used in learning basic communication in other languages—even multiple languages at once—since, for basic communication, vocabulary is generally more useful than a knowledge of the target language’s syntax [it is even possible to learn basic communication with no knowledge of the target language’s syntax]). For a basis to expand this list into other languages see Wiktionary:Swadesh template

For other Swadesh lists, see Appendix:Swadesh list.

Transcription[edit]

Notes on Romanization:

  • a, ɑ, e, i, o and u correspond respectively to [a] or [ä] or [æ], [ɑ], [ɪ] or [ɛ], [i], [ɔ] and [u].
  • â, é, ă correspond respectively to [ɒː], [e], and [ʌ].
  • ā, ɑ̄, ē, ī, ō and ū stand for the same vowels, but pronounced longer. [aː], [ɑː], [ɛː] or [eː], [iː], [ɔː], [uː]
  • b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y and z correspond to their phonological equivalents in English for the most part.
  • θ stands for the th of English thick. [θ]
  • ð stands for the th of English this. [ð]
  • j stands for the j of English job. [d͡ʒ]
  • g stands for the g of English good. [ɡ] or [ɢ]
  • ğ corresponds to the Classical Arabic rendition of ج which is still preserved in a few varieties. It is somewhere between g and j. [ɟ] or [ɡʲ]
  • x stands for the sound of German ch in Ach! or j in Spanish jota. [x] or [χ]
  • ġ stands for the voiced counterpart of x, much as Spanish intervocalic g. [ɣ] or [ʁ]
  • š stands for the sh of English ship. [ʃ]
  • č stands for the ch of English chip. [t͡ʃ]
  • ž stands for the zh of English pleasure. [ʒ]
  • q stands for the typical rough q sound of Semitic languages. [q]
  • ħ stands for the typical rough h sound of Semitic languages. [ħ] or [ʜ]
  • ʕ stands for the typical rough 3 sound of Semitic languages. [ʕ] or [ʢ]
  • . underneath a letter means it is emphatic. e.g. [tˁ], [sˁ], [ðˁ], etc.
  • See Maltese alphabet for information on Maltese orthography used in this table.

- Other vowels with a breve are brought to a low-mid articulation.

I[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Western/Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
1 I ˀanā ˀɑ̄na ʔɑnɑ, ʔana ʔɑ̄nī anɑ̄ ˀane(h) ānā ana ana, dana ana ana ēne, āna anɑ, anayɑ ānɑ jien
2 you
(singular)
anta (m), ant(i); (do) -uka (m), -uki (f) entɑ (m), enti (f); (do) -ik (m), -ič (f) entɑ (m), entē (f); (do) -ɑk (m), -ik (f) ente (m), enti (f); (do) -ek (m), í(e)č (f) ăntɑ (m), ăntē (f); (do) -ăk (m), -kī (f) ant (m), anti (f); (do) ant, -ak (m), anti, -eš (f) intɑ (m), inti (f); (do) inta, -ek (m), inti, -iš (f) int (m), inti (f); (do) -ak (m), ik (f) inta (m), inti (f); (do) -ak, -īk (m), -ik, -ki (f) intɑ (m), inti (f); (do) -ɑk (m), -ik (f) inta, inte (m), inti (f); (do) -ak (m), -ik, -ki (f) inti; (do) -ik/inti ntɑ, ntayɑ (m), nti, ntiyɑ (f); (do) -ik (ə)ntɑ (m), (ə)ntiyyɑ (f); (do) -ak, -k (m), -ək, -k (f) int, inti
3 he huwa uhu huwwe huwwɑ ōwe, -we uo howwɑ hūwɑ huwwā həwɑ́ huwwɑ, hūwɑ huwa
4 we naħnu neħen nɑħnɑ̄ eħne niħnɑ̄ eħnə(h) naħana naxni eħna neħna ˀanīna (a)ħənā ħnɑ, ħnayɑ (n)əħnɑ aħna
5 you
(plural)
antum (m), antunna (f) entu (m), enten (f) ento entu (m), enten (f) ăntim anto intū (m), intēn (f) intu intu intu intu(m) ntūma ntumɑ (ə)ntūmɑ (m), ntūmāti (f) intom
6 they hum (m), hunna (f) (u)hum (m), (e)hen (f) hennē huṃṃɑ (f), heṇṇ (f) hăyyəm, imme hom (m), hen (f) hum (m), hēn (f) innen homma hum (m), hun (f) human (m/f), hinna (f, rare) hūma humɑ hūmɑ (m), hūmāti (f) huma
7 this hāðā (m), hāðihī (f) hɑ̄ða (m), hɑ̄ði (f) hɑydɑ (m), haydē (f) hɑ̄ðɑ̄ (m), hɑ̄y (f) hāðā (m), hāðī (f) ð̣ɑyyɑ̄h (m), tayyih (f) hāðī aða (m), aðī (f) da(h) (m), di(h) (f) dɑ (m), de(h) (f) dā (m), dī (f) hāða (m), hāði (f) hada (m), hadi (f) (hā)ðɑ (m), (hā)ði (f) dan (m), din (f)
8 that ðālika (m), tilka (f) haðɑ̄k (m), hāðīč (f) haydīk (m), hīdēk (f) ðɑ̄kɑ (m), ðíeče (f) hăðēk (m), hăðīk (f) ð̣ɑyyik (m), tayyik (f) hāðāk (m), hāðīk (f) áðak (m), áðik (f) dawwat (m), dayyat (f), (variants) dawwan, dawwak, dawwa, etc. dāk (m), dēk (f) dāk (m), dīk (f) hāðāka (m), hāðīka (f) hadak, dak (m), hadik, dik (f) ðāk(huwwa) (m), ðīk(hiyyɑ) (f) dak (m), dik (f)
9 here hunā əhni hōn ihnɑ̄na, ihnɑ̄ hūnī, hăwn hāna hinnī ɑwnɑ, annaxula hena; aho, henaho(wwat) (m), ahe, henahe(yyat) (f) hina hine hūnī hnɑ, hnayɑ hūn, hūnāti(yyɑ) hawn
10 there hunāka, θamma əhnɑ̄k honīk ihnɑ̄kɑ, lġɑ̄d hənuk, hăwnīk, ġādi hānāk hinnāk ɑwnké, axulla henāk, yahō (more yonder) hināk, hinūk hināk ġādī təmmɑ vɑmm, vɑmmāti(yyɑ), hūk (more yonder) hemm(hekk)
11 who man men mīn menu mənu man mīn men mīn minu yātu škūn škun mən(hu) min
12 what mā, māða (before verbs), bi ʔayyi (šayʔin) (lit. with what thing) wēš, šu, ēš šū, eiš šenu, šə- ăšū māh, ayš ēš ē(h) šinu šunu, yātu (more who) šnuwwa (m), šneyya (f), šnūma (p) aš, ašnu š(ə)-, šən(hu)-, -āš x', x'inhu, (għal)xiex
13 where ayna wēn wein wíen wǎyṣɑb (w)ayn fēn, ħēn ayn fēn wēn wēn wīn, fīn fin wɑyn fejn
14 when matā metɑ eimtīn, imtɑ šwaket, bíeš ăšwaqet fayyəħīn mta miten emta mitēn mata waqtāš, waqtē fuqaš ɑyntɑ meta
15 how kayfa čēf kīf šlōn ăšon kayf kē(f) kif, aššikl ezzāy kēf(in), izzeyy (ki)kēf kīfāš, kīfē ki, kifaš škīv kif
16 not laysa (m), laysat (f), mā, lā (imperfect/verbs), lam (perfect/verbs), lan (future/verbs) mu, mōb, ma (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) miš, mu, ma (verbs) mū, mɑ (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) māš, ma...š (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) mā, lōb, lɑ̄ (imper.) la, má-, máy meš (occasionally used as a modal verb), moš, ma...š (verbs) meš, mɑ (verbs) mūš (frequently used as a modal verb), ma...š (verbs, some adjectives and nouns) maši, ma...š (verbs) mā, lā (imper.) mhux, ma...x (verbs)
17 all kull(a/i), kāmil kell(e) kell kull kill, kāməl kull, ğāmiʕ(iyyih) kull kull koll(e) kull kulla (l)kul kul, geʕ kul kull
18 many kaθīr wɑ̄yed əktīr (ə)hwɑ̄ya ksīġ xɑyrɑ̄t, ziyādih wāgid, kiθīr xtīr ketīr ketīr, rɑ̄gid katīr barša bəzzaf yāsər ħafna
19 some bɑʕḍ, kam min bɑʕð̣ bɑʕɑḍ šwayyɑ, fadd băʕð̣, šwăyyi zɑ̄rɑt, bɑʕð̣ baʕð xɑytč š(e)wayya, kemmeyya bɑʕd šwiyya šwayya, baˁð̣ ši, šwiyyɑ bɑʕð̣ xi

II[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
20 few qɑlīl (min) gelīl, šwayya ʔalīl, əntūfi čam, šwayyɑ šwiyyōni, pərčōni galīl, šwayyih šwī, bɑðɑʕ, qɑlīl fitté, šfé olayyel galīl šwiyya, baˀed šwayya qlil, ši əglīl ftit
21 other ʔāxɑr θɑ̄ni, xlɑ̄f tēne lux, llāx ˀllāx šī, ġayr θānī axar tāni kutur, tɑ̄ni lˀāxar lēxɑr axər āxăr ieħor
22 one wāħid(un) (m), wāħida(tun) (f) wɑ̄ħed (m), weħde (f) wēħed, wɑ̄ħɑd (m), wɑħde (f) wɑħed (m), weħde (f) wīħəd (m), wiħdi (f) wāħid (m), wāħidih (f) wāħad (m), wāħada (f) (v)exen (m), (v)exte (f) wāħed (m), waħda (f) wɑ̄ħed (m), weħde (f) wāhid (m), wahde (f) wāħid (m), wēħda (f) waħed (m), weħdɑ (f), weħdin (p) wāħid (m) wieħed (m), waħda (f), waħdiet (p)
23 two ʔiθnān(i) (m), ʔiθnatān (f); (oblique case) ʔiθnayn(i) (m), ʔiθnatayn(i) (f) θnēn (m), θəntēn (f) (i)tneyn θníen (m), θəntíen (f) θnīn (m), θintīen (f) iθnayn (m), θintayn (f) θnēn (m), θantēn (f) xnayn etnēn etnēn tinēn (m), tittēn (f) zūz, θnīn žuž, tnin (only for >10) iθnayn tnejn, żewġ (construct form)
24 three θalāθa(tun) θalɑ̄θa (ə)tlétē klɑ̄θa, tlɑ̄θa θāθi θalāθah θalāθa tlaθe talāta talɑ̄tɑ talāta θlāθa tlatɑ θalāθa tlieta
25 four ʔarbaʕa(tun) ʔɑrbɑʕa ʔɑrbʕɑ̄ ʔɑrbʕɑ ˀūbaʕ ʔɑrbɑʕɑh arbaʕa árpăˁa ɑrbɑˁɑ ɑrbɑʕɑ ˀarba (ˀa)rbˤā rəbʕa arbaʕa erbgħa
26 five xamsa(tun) xamsɑ xamse xumsɑ xăms(ă)i xamsih xumsa xampse xamsa xamsɑ xamsa xamsa xəmsɑ xamsa ħamsa
27 big kabīr č(e)bīr, ʕōd, k(a)bīr kbīr čebíer kbīġ kabīr kibīr kpīr kibīr, -gbīr (after vowel) kabīr kabīr kbīr kbir əkbīr kbir
28 long ṭawīl ṭɑwīl ṭewīl ṭɑwíel ṭăwīl ṭɑwīl ṭɑwīl tvīl tuīl ṭɑwīel tɑwīl twīl ṭwil ṭwīl twil
29 wide wāsiʕ, raħīb wɑ̄seʕ, ʕarīð̣ ʕɑrīḍ, wēsʕi ʕɑrīð̣, wɑ̄seʕ rāhi, wēsiʕ fsaħ, wāsiʕ wāseʕ, ʕɑrīð fsīˁī wāseˁ wɑ̄sɑʕ wāseˤ waseʕ wāseʕ wiesa'
30 thick ġɑlīð̣, θaxīn (more for materials), kaθīf (more stout) metīn smīk θəxīn, mčabben θăxīn matīn, ġazīr matīn ˁɑpi texīn tɑxīn, mɑ̄kin (objects) samīn xšīn, ġlīð̣ ġliḍ oħxon
31 heavy θaqīl θagīl tiʔīl θegīl θăqīl θagīl, jawr, razīn (more wise) ħarīr θkīl teˀīl tɑgīl tɑgīl θqīl tqil θgīl tqil
32 small ṣɑġīr, qɑlīl (in rare cases; more few) zɑġīr, ṣɑġīr zɑġyūr, zġīr zġɑyyer ˀzġɑyyiġ zɑġīr, zuġayri ṣɑġīr zěˁīr soġɑnnɑn, soġɑyyɑr, soġɑntūt (more young) suġɑyyɑr saxayyar ṣġīr ṣġir əsqīr żgħir
33 short qɑṣīr gaṣīr ʔɑsīr gṣɑyyer qăṣiyyiġ gaṣīr qɑṣīr xmīn ˀosɑyyɑr guṣɑyyɑr gisɑyyɑr qṣīr qṣir qṣīr qasir
34 narrow ḍɑyyiq ṣixīf, ð̣ɑyyig dayyiʔ geṣīf, ð̣ɑyyig ð̣ɑyyiq ð̣ɑyyig ð̣iyyaq dayyeˀ, medayyaˀ (more tight) dɑyyig ð̣iyyiq dejjaq
35 thin rɑqīq, rafīʕ, naħīf (more fine) dejīj, ð̣ʕīf (more weak) mɑmṣūʕ, nɑħīf, rʔīʔ mɑṣwi, refīʕ ġăqīq naħīf ħaṭīṭ mǎˁaer, θkīk rofɑyyɑˁ, rofɑnnɑˁ naħīf bɑ̄til žwayyid, ð̣ˁīf rqiq
36 woman imrɑʔa, mɑrʔɑ ħurma mɑrɑ mɑrɑ, mrayya mɑġɑ, mɑġiyyi mɑrih, maklaf mɑrɑ mɑrɑ sett, wleyya (coarse) ħurmɑ, zōlɑ mara mra mara
37 man
(adult male)
rɑjul, mɑrʔ rɑyyɑ̄l rižžēl, zɑlɑmé (inf) rijjɑ̄l ġijīl rağğāl riggīl, riggāl intsán rɑ̄gel zōl, rɑ̄ğil rajul rāžil raġel
38 man
(human being)
insān, šɑxṣ (more person), mɑrʔ, ʔibn ʔādam (literally Son of Adam) ʔɑ̄dmi, nafs, ʔeben ʔɑ̄dam šɑxes, bɑšɑr ʔɑ̄dmi, bašɑr, banyɑ̄dam ˀādmi, ˀənsān, bɑšɑr bašar, banī ʔādam intsán baniˀādam nɑfɑr ˁabəd bniedem
39 child
(a youth)
ṭifl, walad yɑ̄hel, bazer, ʕayyel wɑlɑd jɑ̄hel ʕijī, wɑlɑd ğāhil, ʕiyɑ̄l (pl. only) gāhal morós, vilt ˁayyel, tefl (more infant) ṭefl, ğenna wlēd ṭful, fazġūl tifel

III[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
40 wife zawja, imrɑʔa (more woman), ħurma (more unit of harem) mɑrɑ, murt-, ħurma mɑrɑ, mɑrt-, zowži, ħormi (chiefly Muslim) mɑrɑ, mɑrt-, ʔahal ð̣iġɑ, mɑġɑ marih, zawğa, ṭɑbīnah (second wife), ð̣ɑrrɑh (second wife) zōga mprɑt- merɑ̄t- mɑrɑ, zōğa mara, mart- mra, mart- mara
41 husband baʕl, zawj rɑjel, rīl zowž, žoz rɑjel, zōj zăwj zawğ zōg žɑwz, intsán gōz zōğ, baxt rāžil żewġ, raġel
42 mother ʔumm ʔumm ʔemm (ə)ṃṃ, ʔuṃṃ ˀimm ʔumm umm umm mɑmt-, omm umm ˀum ˀum omm
43 father abb, abā- ʔubu-, ʔɑbb bēy- abū-, abb ˀabō-, ˀabb ʔabb, ʔabū- ōb yapát- bɑbɑ̄-, abū-, ˀɑbb abū ˀabba, ˀabu- missier
44 animal ħaywān, dābba (beasts of burden) ħayawɑ̄n, sɑ̄nya (beasts of burden) ħaywēn, dabbi ħaywɑ̄n ħăywān ħayawān, dābbih našara xeván ħayawān bahīma, waħš hayawān ħayawān annimal, bhima
45 fish samaka smičɑ semkē semčɑ sămăki ħūtih, samakih samaka, ṣēd samaka ħūt, ṣīr hūt ħūta ħuta
46 bird ṭɑ̄ʔir ṭēr ṭɑyr, ʔɑṣfūrē ṭēṛ, ʕaṣfūr (small only) ṭɑyġ ṭɑ̄yir ˁɑsfūrɑ, tēr (zool., archaic) ṭēr, ʕasfūr, zarzūr tēr ˁaṣfūr għasfur
47 dog kalb čalb kelb čaleb kalib kalb kelb kilp, kyopek kalb kalib, garzan (hunting), šalag (non-hunting, lap-dog) kelib kalb kelb
48 louse qamla gamla ʔamlē gamḷa qămli deðrī, gummalih kample ˀamlāya gamla, ṣɑwɑ̄bɑ qamla qamla
49 snake ħayya, θuʕbān (any serpent), ʔafʕa (poisonous) dāb, ħanaš (poisonous) ħayyi ħayya, ħyɑ̄yɑ, ṣell (small), ʕerbīd (large) ħăyyi ħanaš ˁɑfɑ teˁbān taʕbɑ̄n, dɑbīb ħnaš serp, lifgħa
50 worm dūda dūd dūdi, sūsi salbūħ, dūd wagzih, ħūt (more fish, whale), taʕālih dūda dūdɑ dūda duda, ħanex
51 tree šajarɑ šyɑrɑ sižrē šajarɑ, šejrɑ (more squash) sijăġɑ šeğarih šagara ðentra šɑgɑrɑ, sɑgɑrɑ šɑdɑrɑ šɑdɑrɑ̄y šužra, sužra siġra
52 forest ġāba, ħirš ġɑ̄ba ħerš ġɑ̄ba ġāba ġāba ġɑ̄bɑ ġāba foresta, masġar
53 stick
(of wood)
ʕaṣɑ̄, ʕūd ʕūd, ʕačwɑ ʕɑṣɑ̄(ye) ʕūda, līṭɑ (thin) ʕɑṣɑ̄yi ʕuṣyah, ʕūdih (also root) ˁɑssɑ ˁɑsɑ̄yɑ ʕɑṣɑ ˁṣā għasluġ, ħatar
54 fruit fākiha, θamarɑ fɑ̄k(e)ha, mīwɑ fwékē mēwɑ, fɑ̄kehɑ fākihi, mīwi fākiha fakha sɑmɑr, fɑ̄kha ġalla frott
55 seed zarʕ, ħabba bɑdɑr, bazir bizr bazra, bɑðrɑ, ħabba baziġ, ħăbb, ʕəjo (more pit) ħabbih, baðarih biðara pizr bezr, taˀāwi tirɑ̄b, tɑgɑ̄wi, bazr (pedantic) zurrīˁa żerriegħa
56 leaf waraqɑ wruga, xōṣ (palm) wɑrʔɑ̄ warga waġaqa waragih ħūṡɑ fíllo waraˀet šɑgɑr waraga warqa werqa
57 root jaðr, ʕirq (also artery) ʕirj, jaðer šerš ʕereg jăðiġ, ʕiriq ʕūdih (also stick) giðar gedr ʕerg ˁirq għerq
58 bark
(of tree)
liħāʔ, qilf ʔešri gešer qišiġ gišrih qišara gedˁ gišrɑ, girf qišra qoxra
59 flower zahrɑ zahra zɑhrɑ wared, warda wăġdāyi zahrah zɑhɑrɑ, warada vɑrté warda nɑwwɑ̄r nawwāra fjura, nawra

IV[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
60 grass ʕušb, ħašīš (also Cannabis) ʕešeb, ħašīš, rɑbīʕ (more spring) ħašīš, ʕošb θayyel, ʔasal (marsh grass) ħăšīš ħašīš ħašīš, kutīl (specific type) šxéx, tšeˁīr negīla, ħašīš (more Cannabis) umɑṣɑ̄biʕa, anīs, tabar (various types of desert grass) geš ħšīš ħaxix
61 rope ħabl ħabel ħabl ħabel ħabil salabih, ħabl xɑpl ħabl ħabl habil ħbal ħabel
62 skin
(of a person)
jild, bašɑra yeld, bašara (more complexion) želd jeled jilid ğild gild geld ğeld gilid žilda ġilda
63 meat
(as in flesh)
laħm laħam laħm laħam laħim šerkih, laħmih laħam láxm laħma laħm laham lħam laħam
64 blood damm damm damm damm dămm dam damm timm damm damm dom dam demm
65 bone ʕɑð̣m ʕɑð̣m(ɑ) ʕɑḍmi ʕɑð̣um, čaʕab (also bottom, end; more for animals) ʕăð̣im ʕuð̣mih ʕɑð̣im ˁɑdm(ɑ) ʕɑḍm adum ˁð̣am għadma
66 fat
(noun)
samn, dahn dehen, šaħam šɑħm, dahen dasam, šaħam šəħim samn, duhn toxn šaħm, dehn, laħma bēdɑ dihn, šaħm zet šħam xaħam, simna
67 egg bayḍɑ bēð̣a beyḍɑ, bɑyḍɑ bíeð̣ɑ bĭð̣a bɑyð̣ɑ bēð̣a peð bēdɑ bēḍɑ bergideda ˁað̣ma bajda
68 horn qɑrn gɑrn ʔɑr(e)n geren qăġin garn ˀɑrn gɑrn gurun garn qarn
69 tail ðanab, ðayl ðēl daneb ðíel ðĭl sublih ðēl tumpye dēl danab danaba baˁbūs denb
70 feather
(rather not down)
rīša rīša rīše rīša ġīšāyi rīših rīša rīš suf rīša rixa
71 hair šaʕr šɑʕɑr šʕɑrɑ šɑʕɑr šɑʕeġ ṣūf, šaʕr šaʕar šaxvé šɑˁr šɑʕr šaar šˁɑr xagħar
72 head rɑʔs rɑ̄s rɑ̄s rɑ̄s, ṣmɑ̄x (somewhat coarse) ġɑ̄ṣ rɑʔs, rɑ̄s rās mox demāġ, rɑ̄s (more top of the head) rɑ̄s ras rās ras
73 ear ʔuðun ʔeðen dāynē, edn ʔīðɑ̄n, ʔeðen ˀəðin ʔeðn, ʔuðn ðin iðn wedn ɑdɑ̄n adana wðin widna
74 eye ʕayn ʕēn ʕayn ʕēn ʕĭen ʕayn ʕēn ˁɑyn ˁēn ʕayn ena ˁīn għajn
75 nose anf xašem menxɑr xašem xăšim nuxrih xušum mɑxúr maraxīr nɑxrɑ anafa xšam mnieħer
76 mouth famm būz, θamm, ħalj (coarse) temm ħaleg θimm lugf, fumm θōm xank boˀˀ, ħanak (animals, coarse) xašm kasma žalġa, fumm ħalq, fomm
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
sinna, ðars (molar) ðers, senn (pedantic) senn senn sin, čāġōši (more molar) ðirs (most teeth, molars), sĕnnih (incisor) ðars, gūhara (incisors), mɑṭɑ̄ħɑn (molar) sinn senna senn sunun sinna sinna
78 tongue lisān lesɑ̄n lisēn əlsɑ̄n ˀəlsīn lisān lisān san lesān lisɑ̄n lisan lsān lsien
79 fingernail ð̣ifr, ð̣ufr ð̣ufer defr ʔeð̣fer ʔəð̣feġ ʔuð̣fur, ð̣ufr ð̣ɑ̄fūr ðufr dɑ̄fer dufur dufur ð̣far difer

V[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
80 foot qɑdam, rijl jadam, rīl ežr rejel, qɑdam ġijil riğl qadam, kaff ižr regl kurɑ̄ʕ, reğl kura sāq sieq
81 leg sāq rīl, krɑ̄ʕ (esp. animals) ežr rejel, pɑ̄čɑ, krɑ̄ʕ (animals), zerr (also button), pɑ̄yɑ (objects) ṣāq riğl, sāg sāq, rigl ižr regl kurɑ̄ʕ, reğl kura ržil riġel
82 knee rukba ričba, rukba rekbi rukbɑ ġəkbay rukbih rikba rokba rukba rukuba rukba rkoppa
83 hand yadd ˀīd, yed ʔīd īd īd yad yadd it ˀīd ˀīd ida yid id
84 wing janāħ janāħ žēneħ əjnɑ̄ħ əjnâħ janāħ genāħ ğɑnɑ̄ħ ğina žnāħ ġewnaħ
85 belly bɑṭɑn, miʕda (medical) karš, bɑṭen bɑṭn, meʕdē bɑṭen bɑṭin, kiriš bɑṭn, karš (more guts) bɑṭɑn, qɑrš pɑtn bɑtn, meˁda bɑṭn batna kirš żaqq
86 guts ʔamʕāʔ, ʔaħšāʔ, muṣrɑ̄n muṣrɑ̄n mɑṣɑrīn mṣɑ̄rīn, menbɑ̄r (animals) măṣīġīn karš mɑṣūr psarín ħaša, mɑsɑrīn karš musuran bzīz, mṣārīn msaren
87 neck ʕanq, raqaba rguba raʔbē rugbɑ, ʕuneg ġăqqabi ragabih, rugbih raqba, ħalq raġbé raˀaba ragaba ragabtu raqbā, krūmā (more nape) għonq
88 back ð̣ahar ð̣ɑher dɑhr, ʔɑfɑ (more nape) ð̣ɑhɑr, gufɑ (abstract) ð̣ɑheġ gafā, ð̣ɑhr (more abstract) ð̣ɑhɑr ðɑxr dɑhr ḍɑhr dahar ð̣hɑr dahar
89 breast θadiy, nahad, ṣidr (more chest) dēd, ṣɑder (also chest) sedr (also chest), bezz (coarse) dēs, θedɑ (more udder) ṣɑdeġ ð̣ɑrrih, ṣɑdr (more abstract) θawīd, dīdaʕ (lactating) suðr, pizz bezz, nihd (usu. young women) ṣɑdr, nahad (young woman), šɑṭur (older woman) sudur bazzūla sider, beżżula
90 heart qɑlb, fuʔād (also liver; poetic) gaḷb ʔal(e)b gaḷuḅ, (ə)ffɑ̄d, del (abstract) ffɑ̄d, qălib galb qɑlb (human), gōf (animal) kɑlp ˀalb galb gelba qalb qalb
91 liver kabad, fuʔād (also heart; poetic) čab(ə)d kebed kabed, meʕlāg (more food) kabad, mĕʕlāq lăħmɑġ kabdih kibda kaspé kebda kibdɑ kibda fwied
92 to drink šariba šereb širib šerab šiġib širib šrāb širep šereb šereb asurubu šrab xorob
93 to eat ʔakala kal ʔɑkɑl ʔakal ʔɑkɑl (ʔa)kal kil kel kal ʔakal akulu klā kiel
94 to bite ʕɑḍḍɑ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕɑḍḍ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕăð̣ð̣ gaħaṣ, lɑgɑṣ (more from animals) ʕɑð̣ð̣ ˁɑðð ˁɑdd, ˀɑtɑm ˁɑḍḍ, lɑgɑm adi gdim gidem
95 to suck mɑṣṣ, rɑḍiʕa (more suckle) mɑṣṣ mɑṣṣ, mɑʔʔ mɑṣmɑṣ, mɑṣṣ mɑṣ mɑṣmɑṣ, mɑṣṣ ðirˁé, mɑss mɑss mɑṣṣ ğuru rð̣aˁ seff, reda'
96 to spit baṣɑqa tefal, bezag bɑzɑʔ tefal, taffal tafal tafal, ðabal bzāq pizek taff bazag bzaq beżaq
97 to vomit qɑ̄ʔɑ zɑ̄ʕ nɑṭɑʔ, rɑ̄žʕɑ̄ zɑwwɑʕ, tqɑyyɑ ˀəstənfăʕ, zɑwwɑʕ, tqɑyyɑ dafaʕ, gað̣ɑf zɑʕ ražžˁé, staffˁé raggaˁ gidif, istɑfrɑġ rad qala'
98 to blow
(as wind)
tanassama, habba, nafaxɑ nefax, haff nɑfɑx habb, nufax nafax nafax nafax nafax nafax nɑfɑx nfax nefaħ
99 to breathe tanaffasa, tanassama tnaffas tnɑffɑs tnaffas tnăffas, jăġ năfăs tnaffas etnaffes tenaffas tnaffis ħa n-nifs

VI[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
100 to laugh ḍɑħika ð̣eħač ḍɑħɑk ð̣eħak, kɑrkɑr (noisily) ð̣iħik ð̣aħak, tikaʕkaʕ (nosily) ð̣ħāk, kɑrkɑr taxak daħak (also smile), haˀhaˀ (somewhat crude) daħik ð̣ħak daħaq, daħak
101 to see rɑʔā, bɑṣirɑ čɑ̄f šēf šɑ̄f ġišiʕ absar šāf kišˁé, ra šāf nɑẓɑr, šɑ̄f šāf, rā ra
102 to hear samiʕa semaʕ sɑmɑʕ semaʕ simiʕ simiʕ smāʕ simˁé semeˁ semeʕ smaˁ sema'
103 to know
(a fact)
darɑ (news), ʕalima (ideas), ʕarafa (people) derɑ (ideas), ʕerɑf (people, know-how) ʕerif, deri (know-how) derɑ (ideas, events), šeʕɑr (about people; also feel), ʕerɑf (people, know-how, events) ʕiġif dera (ideas, objects), ħafɑð̣ (languages, know-how; also memorize, guard), ʕirif (people, events, ideas) dirā (ideas), ʕrɑ̄f (people) ˁiref ˁeref xeber, ʕirif ˁraf jaf
104 to think ħasiba, ʔiʕtaqɑda (more suppose), fakkarɑ fakkir, ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fteker ʕteqɑd (also presume), tfɑṭṭan (more recall), ṣufan, ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fakkar fakkar gaʕan, fakkar ftaen-, enómiza- fɑkkɑr, zɑnn (more presume) iftɑkɑr xamməm, fakkir ħaseb
105 to smell
(sense odor)
šamma šamm šamm š(t)amm š(t)amm šamm šamm šamm šamm šamm, kɑrɑf šam xamm
106 to fear xāfa, xɑšia xɑ̄f xāf xɑ̄f, rtehab xɑ̄f xɑ̄f fizaʕ fizˁé xāf xɑ̄f xāf beża'
107 to sleep nāma, raqɑda ragad, nɑ̄m nēm nɑ̄m nɑ̄m ragad nām nam nām nɑ̄m rqad raqad
108 to live ʕāša ʕāš ʕāš ʕɑ̄š ʕɑ̄š ʕāš, ʕammir, sakan (more reside) ʕāš, bāt ˁaš ˁāš ʕɑ̄š ˁāš għex
109 to die māta mɑ̄t mēt mɑ̄t mɑ̄t mɑ̄t māt mat māt mɑ̄t māt miet
110 to kill qɑtala getal, ðebaħ, mawwat ʔɑtɑl ketal, qerɑð̣ qătal gatal qtāl maet ˀatal, mawwet gatal qtal qatel
111 to fight ħāriba, qɑ̄tala hɑ̄wɑš, ħɑ̄rab xēniʔ tḅɑ̄ṣaṭ, tmɑ̄lax, ʕɑ̄rɑk tqɑ̄tal lābağ, kɑ̄fɑħ (also struggle) qɑ̄ṭaʕ, tqɑ̄tel starrˁé, ðarep etˁārek ħārab, xānag tˁārik iġġieled
112 to hunt
(transitive)
ṣɑ̄da genɑṣ ṣṭɑ̄ḍ ṣɑ̄d ṣɑ̄d gɑnɑṣ ṣɑ̄d estɑ̄d isṭɑ̄ḍ (with arms), ginɑṣ (with dogs) ˀisṭād ikkaċċja
113 to hit ḍɑraba ṭɑgg, ðerɑb dɑrɑb ðurɑb, buṣɑṭ (also beat up), lečam, haff (quickly) ðăġăb labağ ð̣ɑrɑb takk dɑrɑb, xɑbɑt ṣɑ̄b, ḍɑrɑb ð̣rab laqat, darab, ta daqqa
114 to cut qɑṭaʕa geṭaʕ ʔɑṣṣ gaṣṣ qɑṣṣ gaṣṣ qɑṣṣ katˁā ˀɑtɑˁ gɑṭɑʕ qaṣ qata'
115 to split qasama gesam šaʔʔ fajj, fešag qaṣṣam, făššăq, fɑṣăl šṭɑ̄r šakk šaˀˀ, ˀassem šagg, felax šaqq qasam
116 to stab
(or stick)
ṭɑʕana ṭeʕan dɑrɑb-sekkīn, ṭɑʕɑn ṭeʕan ṭɑʕan tɑˁɑn ṭɑʕɑn dġar nifed
117 to scratch
(an itch)
xadaša ħačč, xammaš xadaš jelax, xarmaš ħăkk, xadaš xakk xarbeš xarmaš xabbiš, ħakk ħakk
118 to dig ħafarɑ ħefɑr ħɑfɑr ħufɑr, nebaš ħăfăġ ħafɑr ħfɑ̄r xiver ħɑfɑr ħɑfɑr ħfar ħaffer
119 to swim sabaħa ʕām sebeħ sebaħ, fɑ̄j sibiħ sabaħ, ʕām (more float) sbāħ tăˁássel, kalimpa ˁām ʕām ˁām għam

VII[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
120 to fly ṭɑ̄ra ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r ṭɑġ tɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r tɑ̄r tar
121 to walk mašā mešɑ, sɑ̄r mešē jɑ̄ pyɑ̄da, meša, geħaf məši sɑ̄r miši xadha maši, meši (more leave) maša mšā mexa
122 to come ʔatā, jāʔa ežɑ jɑ̄ ža ge(h) ğa žā ġie
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
istalqɑ̄, raqɑda nṭerɑħ tṣɑṭṭɑħ, tlaʔʔaħ njeṭɑl, nbuṭɑħ (more sprawl) tmaddăd etmadded, nām rɑgɑd, inbɑṭɑħ tmad mtedd
124 to sit jalasa, qaʕada yelas, geʕad ʔɑʕɑd geʕad nĕbĕṡ, bəčex (coarse) glās kaˁa aˁad gaʕad, gannab qˁad qagħad (bilqiegħda), poġġa (bilqiegħda)
125 to stand qɑ̄ma, waqɑfa wugaf, fazz wɑʔɑf wugaf wiqif wqāf ekef weˀef wagaf wqif qagħad bilwieqfa
126 to turn
(change direction)
dārɑ, ʔanāba laff berem ʕekaf, (n)dɑ̄r ndɑ̄ġ liff tɑr laff dawwɑr, itlafat dār dar
127 to fall
(as in drop)
saqɑta, waqɑʕa ṭɑ̄ħ, wugaʕ wɑʔɑʕ, ʔɑšɑṭ wugaʕ šăqləb ṭɑ̄ħ, sqɑ̄ṭ vɑkˁɑ weˀeˁ wagaʕ ṭāħ waqa'
128 to give ʔaʕṭɑ̄ ʕeṭɑ ʕɑṭɑ̄ neṭɑ ʕăṭɑ̄ ʕṭɑ̄ edda adda ˁṭā ta
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
ʔaxaða, masika jawwad, lezam kamaš lezam misik pisék mesek misik šad żamm, ħa (more to take)
130 to squeeze ʕaṣɑrɑ ʕeṣɑr ʕɑṣɑr, šadd ʕeṣɑr, jeʕaṣ ʕăṣăġ palas, ˁiser ˁɑsɑr ʕɑṣɑr ˁṣar għafas, rass, għasar
131 to rub ħaffa ʕerak, ferak fɑrɑk furɑk, delak ħăkk, făġăk xaff, maˁak daˁak ʕɑṣṣɑr ħak għorok
132 to wash ġasala ġesal ġassel ġesal ġasal ġsāl ˁássel ġasal ġassal ġsal ħasel
133 to wipe maħā, masaħa mašš mɑsɑħ mesaħ, mašš massex masaħ masaħ msaħ mesaħ
134 to pull jarra, saħaba tall sadd, saħɑb jaṛṛ šəħšăṭ sadd žarr šadd šadd žbid ġibed
135 to push dafaʕa defaʕ dafaš defaʕ, darfaʕ, deʕač dăfăʕ tafaš zaˀˀ dɑfɑr daz imbotta, deffes
136 to throw ramā, laqia ðabb, ħeðaf šɑlɑħ, laħaš, zatt šemɑr, ðabb (also throw away) ħəšăl, ṭerr, zett ramā šalax ħedef, rama (more throw away) rama šayyaˁ, lwaħ tefa', xeħet, rema (to throw away)
137 to tie rɑbɑṭɑ ribɑṭ, šebač rɑbɑt ʕegad, šadd rəbɑṭ, ʕăqăd rɑpɑt rɑbɑt ṛɑbɑṭ rbɑṭ rabat
138 to sew qɑṭɑba, xɑ̄ṭa šall, darraz xɑyyet xɑyyɑṭ xăyyiṭ xēṭ šall xɑyyɑt xɑyyɑṭ xɑyyiṭ ħiet
139 to count ʕadda ʕadd, ħeṣɑ ʕadd ħesab, ʕadd (more reckon) ħasab, ʕădd ħsāb ˁadd ˁadd ʕadd ħsib għadd

VIII[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
140 to say qɑ̄la gāl ʔēl, ħekē (more speak) gɑ̄l, ħečɑ (more speak) qɑ̄l qāl kal ˀāl gɑ̄l qal
141 to sing ġanna qanna, ġanna ġanna ġanna ġannɑ ġinnā ˁanna ġanna ġanna għanna, kanta
142 to play laʕiba leʕab leʕeb leʕab liʕib leˁep leˁeb laʕab lagħab
143 to float ṭɑfā ṭɑ̄f, ʕām fēš ṭufɑ, sɑyyɑs (moving) ṭăfā ˁām ʕām għam fil-wiċċ, żamm fil-wiċċ
144 to flow sāla jerɑ, sāl žɑrɑ̄, sēl sāħ, jerɑ jăġā geri ğara ġera
145 to freeze ajlada, jammada jemad, θallaj, fɑrraz sɑʔɑʕ, žallad jemad jimid fɑrrɑz, talleg għaqad, inġazza, iffriża
146 to swell intafaxa, warima warem gabgab, wurɑm wiġim virem werem, taffax wirim, innafax ntefaħ,
147 sun šams šams šams šames šamis šims šimps šams šams xemx
148 moon qɑmɑr gumɑr ʔɑmɑr gumɑr qămăġ qmɑ̄r kamar ˀɑmɑr gɑmɑr qamar
149 star najm, kawkab nī(y)ma nažme najma, najem năjmi nigma nažmé negma nağma kewkba, stilla
150 water māʔ, miyāh mɑ̄y mɑyy(i) ṃɑ̄y mɑ̄y māy, mī moe mɑyyɑ mōya, elmī ilma
151 rain mɑṭɑr muṭɑr šeti, šitē muṭɑr mɑṭɑġ mɑṭɑr, rɑðɑ̄ð, naff šité mɑtɑr, šeta mɑṭɑr xita
152 river nahr nɑhɑr, sɑ̄b (small) nahr šɑṭṭ šɑṭ nɑhɑ̄r paθpun nɑhr baħr, gēf xmara
153 lake buħayra bħeyrɑ buħayṛɑ buħɑyṛɑ ˁɑyn-purke berka, boħēra mōya, berka għadira
154 sea
(as in ocean)
yamm, baħr baħar baħr bɑħɑr bɑħiġ baħr, ðarbe (stormy), kazzī (rough), qɑlħɑ (calm, flat) paxr bɑħr baħr (elmāliħ) baħar
155 salt milħ melħ malħ meleħ miliħ milħ milx malħ milħ melħ
156 stone ħajɑrɑ, ṣɑxɑr ħiyɑr ħɑžrɑ ħjɑ̄ṛa, ṣaḷbūx, ṣɑxrɑ ħăjɑġ dilf, ħagāra xažra tūbɑ, ħɑgɑrɑ ħɑğɑr ġebla, ħaġra
157 sand raml rɑmel rɑml rɑmuḷ ġɑməl bɑṭɑħ, rɑmɑl rɑmlɑ rɑmlɑ ramel
158 dust ġubār ʕɑyɑ̄y, ġbār, ṭōz (also dust storm) ġɑbrɑ̄ ʕɑjɑ̄j, ṭōz ṭăwz ġubār trap ˁofɑ̄rɑ, torɑ̄b (more dirt) ʕağāğ, turɑ̄b trab, għabra
159 earth
(as in soil)
ʔarḍ, θɑrā ʔɑrð̣, ʕɑ̄fūr (also dust) trɑ̄b, ɑreḍ gāʕ, trāb ṭəġāb ṭīn ɑrt ɑrd, torba (also grave), ratš (stony soil), torɑ̄b (more dust) wɑṭɑ art

IX[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
160 cloud saħāba saħāb, ġēm (usu. dark clouds) ġeimi ġìema ġīm ˁayára saħāba ġēm, ġamām sħaba
161 fog ḍɑbāb ṭɑll, ð̣ɑbɑ̄b ġṭayṭɑ ð̣ubɑ̄b ð̣bāb ġɑllēt šɑbbūrɑ ḍɑbɑ̄b ċpar
162 sky samāʔ sama samɑ, žow sema, denyɑ (more atmosphere) sama sama sama sama sema
163 wind
(as in breeze)
rīħ hbūb, rīħ (wind gust), šɑmɑ̄l (northerly), šɑ̄mi (from the northwest), tɑ̄res (strong) hɑwɑ hɑwɑ, nesīm (more breeze) ġīħ habu xava hawa rīħ riħ
164 snow θalj θalj talž, žlīd θalej θalij talg telğ borra
165 ice jalīd θalj talž θalej θalij, jălīd, māy jīməd talg telğ, ğamad silġ
166 smoke duxxān dexxɑ̄n duxxān duxxɑ̄n dixxān duxxān, duxxīn tixxán doxxān duxxān duħħan
167 fire nār ð̣ɑw (also light), ħarīja, nɑ̄r nɑ̄r, ħarīʔ ṇār, ħarīq, ħarīg nɑ̄ġ nār, ħarīq, sargīga (large), mahgīga, madhīra (very large) okít nɑ̄r, ħariīˀa nɑ̄r nar
168 ash rɑmād rmɑ̄d rimēd rṃɑ̄d ġɑmɑ̄d rmat rɑmɑ̄d ṛɑmɑ̄ḍ rmied
169 to burn
(intransitive)
šaʕala, ħarɑqa ħarag ħɑrɑʔ čuwɑ, ħ(t)erag ħaġăq ħrāq xɑrɑk ħaraˀ ħarag ħaraq
170 road ṭɑrīq darb, ṭɑrīg tɑrīʔ, darb dareb ṭrīq, daġib ṭɑrīq tɑrp, trīk sekka, tɑrīˀ (more way) ṭɑrīg, sikka triq
171 mountain jabal yebal žabal jebal jabal gabāl, gabīl žipel gabal ğabal muntanja
172 red ʔaħmɑr ħɑmɑr ʔɑħmɑr ʔɑħmɑr, damawi ăħmɑġ ħmār, xumrī (deep) ɑxmɑr ɑħmɑr aħmɑr aħmar
173 green ʔaxḍɑr xɑð̣ɑr ʔɑxḍɑr ʔɑxð̣ɑr ăxð̣ɑġ xðɑ̄r prásino ɑġdɑr gɑrɑmɑ̄nī, ɑxḍɑr (dark green to dark grey) aħdar
174 yellow ʔaṣfar ɑṣfɑr ʔɑsfɑr ʔɑṣfɑr ăṣfɑġ ħɑnṭī, ṣfɑ̄r sítrino ɑsfɑr asfɑr isfar
175 white ʔabyɑḍ ɑbyɑð̣ ʔɑbyɑḍ ʔɑbyɑð̣, šakari (creamy) ăbyɑð̣ byɑ̄ð̣ ápkyað ɑbyɑd ɑbyɑḍ abjad
176 black ʔaswad aswad, ʔabrag (usu. for animals, black and blue) ʔɑswɑd ʔaswad, hendes (pitch black) ăswad swād ísvet eswed azrag, aswɑd (more pitch black) iswed
177 night layla lēl layl lìel lĭl lēl layl lēla lēla lejl
178 day
(daytime)
yawm, nahār (daytime) yōm yawm yōṃ nəhɑ̄ġ yōm xar yōm, nɑhɑ̄r (daytime) yōm, nɑhɑ̄r (daytime) jum, nhar (daytime)
179 year ʕām, sana (year of drought) sana seni sana sani sana, ʕām sine sana sana, ʕām, ħōl sena

X[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Juban (South Sudanese) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
180 warm
(as in weather)
dāfiʔ dɑ̄fi defyēn (bodies), suxn (food) ħɑ̄mi, dɑ̄fi dīfi dāfi, ħāmi (more hot) xɑrr dāfi dāfi [Term?]
181 cold
(as in weather)
bārid bɑ̄red (objects), bardɑ̄n (people) bēred bɑ̄red ṣqīʕ bārid bārid peret sāˀeˁ (usu. objects), saˀˁān, bardān (people) bārid kiesaħ, biered
182 full malān, mumtaliʔ, kāmil matrūs, mamzūr metlēn, mʕabbē matrūs, mqɑppaṭ kāməl malyān, malyɑ̄n, kāmil mʕabbī mplan malyān malyɑ̄n mimli
183 new jadīd yadīd ždīd jedīd jdīd ğadīd gadīd žtīt gedīd ğadīd ġdid
184 old qɑdīm, ʕatīq qɑdīm, kabīr (people), ʕōd (usu. big but also old; people) ʔadīm (objects), xetyɑ̄r (people, more attributive noun), ʕatīʔ (more ancient) ʕatīg, qɑdīm qădīm, ʕătīq gadīm, kabīr (more big) qɑdīm (objects), dawīl (people), šēb (people, abstract) ˁɑtīk ˀadīm (objects), ˁagūz (people) gadīm (objects), ʕaṭīg (ancient), ʕağūz (people) xiħ (people), qadim (objects), antik (objects)
185 good jayyid, ħasan zēn mnīħ, ṭɑyyeb zíen, xōš mlīħ, xōš nāhi, kwayyis, ʕīs (very good) zēn kaes, taep k(u)wayyes samiħ, kuwayyis, šadīd (more well) tajjeb
186 bad sayyiʔ šēn ʕɑ̄ṭel mu zíen, čuruk mâ mlīħ, čirik, mâ xōš xɑ̄yis, bɑ̄ṭil vešex waħeš bɑṭṭɑ̄l, waħiš ħażin
187 rotten
(as a log)
fāsid xɑ̄yes, maħawħaw mɑnzūʕ, msowwes (wood) xɑ̄yes məxănbaq, xăyyiṣ ˁefen meˁaffen maxawrɑn, ʕafen [Term?]
188 dirty wasix waṣəx wesex (dirt), mižwē (unclean regardless of material) waṣix, nages, zafer wiṣix măˁaθθi wesex wasxān, wasix maħmuġ
189 straight mustaqīm sīdɑ doġri ʕadel, gubɑḷ ṭăwlāni, ʕadil sīdɑ, (ʕala) ṭūl iša ˁedel, ˁɑlɑtūl ʕadīl, ṭɑwwɑ̄lī dritt
190 round mustadīr mdawwɑr mdowwer mdawwar, mdaʕbal (ə)mdawwiġ strondžilí medɑwwɑr muḍawwɑr, mudardam tond
191 sharp
(as a knife)
ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħāmi ħādd jaqta'
192 dull
(as a knife)
kalīl aʕma mtallam, mišħadde ˀaʕmi məθlūm bāred, telem mayyit [Term?]
193 smooth ʔamlas, nāʕem ʔamlas nēʕem, meles nāʕem, amlas ămlas, nīʕim tāsi, rāxī (also thin) nāˁem amlas, mārin mieles, lixx
194 wet rɑṭb, muballal mablūl, rɑṭəb (more humid) mbɑllɑl nɑ̄geʕ, mballal (ə)mnɑqqɑʕ ɑxð̣ɑr, mablūl xð̣ɑr, rɑṭb maplúl mablūl mablūl mxarrab
195 dry
(adjective)
jāff ħāff, nɑ̄šef nēšef yɑ̄bis, nɑ̄šef nīšif yābis, nāšif yābis yepes nāšef yābis, nɑ̄šif niexef, xott
196 right
(correct)
ṣɑħīħ ʕadel, ṣɑħīħ mɑzbūt, tamēm, sɑħīħ ṣɑ̄yeb, ṣɑħħ ṣɑħīħ ṣɑħħ ħaqq, ṣɑħħ sɑħħ, mɑzbūt ʕadil, ṣɑħīħ tajjeb, sewwa
197 near qɑrīb, bi-qurb garīb, dūni, yamm (more beside) ʔarīb, ħadd (more beside) qɑrīb, yamm (more beside) qăġīb, yămm (more beside) garīb qurb, qɑrīb žump ˀorɑyyeb (min), gamb (more beside) garīb qrib, viċin
198 far baʕīd baʕīd beʕīd bʕīd bʕīd baʕīd pĕˁīt beˁīd baʕīd, ġɑ̄di (very far) 'il bogħod
199 right
(side)
yamīn yemīn yemīn ʔayman (m), yimna (f) ˀ(i)ymīn yimān yamīn yemīn yamīn lemin

XI[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Western/Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
200 left
(side)
yasār yesɑ̄r šmēl ʔaysɑr (m), yisra (f) yăṣɑ̄ġ yɑsɑ̄r, šimɑ̄l šɑdɑf, yɑsɑ̄r zărvá šemāl šimɑ̄l ˀīdak alˀisrāy līsār šmel, əṣri īd ilʕasri xellug
201 at bi, ʔilā (more towards), ʕind(a) ʕend ʕind, eb, bi ʕe(n)d, eb- ʕidd ʕind, fi ʕind ˁint ˁand ʕind fī (place), fōg (people) ˁand ʕənd ʕand għand, fi, sa
202 in fī, bi fi be, eb, fi (fig. only) əb- əb- wɑṣṭ, fī fi fe fi fi vī, və fi, ġo, ġewwa
203 with
(accompanying)
maʔ, bi wiyyɑ, b- mɑʕɑ, bi wayyɑ, eb- mɑʕɑ maʕ maʕ, bi maˁ- maˁa, be, wayyā (poetic) maʕa, bi maˀa, be mˁā mʕa mʕa, bə ma', miegħ-
204 and wa w-, wɑ u we, w- u, w- wa, w- wa u wo, w- wa, u wa ū u- wə, u u
205 if ʔið(ā), law (conditional), ʔin (conditional) lo, iðɑ, (ən)čɑ̄n eza, law, ezakēn, enkēn lō, iðɑ̄ ăðā lɑ̄, ʔeðɑ̄ iðā, lō, bā (conditional) an, kan law, en (conditional) in, lɑw (conditional) kān ˀīðā ilɑ ilā, iða jekk
206 because liʔanna, kayy, liðālik (for that (reason)), bisababi (with that reason) lenn, ˀaʕšɑ̄n, lajel (on account of, so as to) lɑʔɑnno, šenno, kermēl (on account of, so as to) ʕalamōd, číef ămbūr, bəjġān (more Christian) ʕa(la)sibb, min mayd (on account of) ʕašān ta, ðyotī ˁa(la)šān ˀaʕšɑ̄n fīšān ˁlā xāṭer ħit, ʕla ħqqaš (on account of), ʕlā qbal (on account of) bī(h)əlli għax
207 name ʔism ˀasem ˀesem esm isim ˀism ism ism esm ism, sammu ˀus(u)m ˀism səm, smiyyɑ ʔism isem

See also[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic:  Standard ArabicEgyptianPalestinianTunisianCypriot – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese:  MandarinCantoneseGanJizhaoMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongOld Chinese – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian – English:  OldMiddle – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – FrenchOld French – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek:  Modern GreekAncient Greek – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian – Japanese – Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – LatinVulgar Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Neapolitan – Norwegian:  BokmålNynorsk – Ojibwe – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – PortugueseOld Portuguese – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sicilian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Austro-Asiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Kho-Bwa – Kuki-Chin – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – South American – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tibeto-Burman (Nepal) – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Slavic