Appendix:Varieties of Arabic Swadesh lists

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a Swadesh list of Arabic languages, specifically Arabic, Gulf Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, North Mesopotamian Arabic, Sanaani Arabic, Dhofari Arabic, Cypriot Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, Sudanese Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Hassaniya and Maltese, compared with that of English. In this case, the language of Arabic refers to Standard Arabic (MSA).

Presentation[edit]

This list of words was devised by the linguist Morris Swadesh. He used it as a means of determining the closeness of any pair of languages. It is a useful list of the most common words that are essential to most languages (and may be used in learning basic communication in other languages—even multiple languages at once—since, for basic communication, vocabulary is generally more useful than a knowledge of the target language’s syntax [it is even possible to learn basic communication with no knowledge of the target language’s syntax]). For a basis to expand this list into other languages see Wiktionary:Swadesh template

For other Swadesh lists, see Appendix:Swadesh list.

Notes on choice of cognates:

Due to the unique situation of diglossia in the Arabic-speaking world, there is no written standard for any of the modern spoken varieties of Arabic (except Maltese). Due to this lack of regulation, the languages are prone to change relatively quickly in most cases. In addition to this, the line between formal vs. informal speech is blurred and more of a continuum, loanwords from the higher variety, i.e. MSA, are in and out of use depending on context, and many terms and expressions are viewed as part of the native speaker's lexicon even if they would never naturally use those terms in their everyday life.

All of this creates a difficult situation for creating accurate lists to reflect cognates in dialect families and so this approach was decided upon:

  • If a term for the cognate exists in this variety and is a commonly used "type" of the cognate in question, it is included: e.g. Dhofari "gūhara" is included because an "incisor" is a type of tooth; Iraqi "manxar" is not included because a "nostril" is not a type of nose.
  • If a term for a cognate has a loanword from MSA that is evidenced as not evolving naturally from the initial dissemination of Arabic in the region and is not as common as a native/MSA-dervied term, it is not included: e.g. Egyptian "famm" meaning "mouth", Iraqi "θɑ̄ni" meaning "other", & Sanaani "laˀenn" meaning "because".
  • If a term for a cognate in a special condition/situation could be described in one word if a native speaker is made to do so, then it is included: e.g. Dhofari "sargīga" meaning "large fire" vs Egyptian "ħarīˀa-gbīra" literally meaning "large" "fire".
  • The decision to include a term for a cognate is determined (1) by how common it is in the variety in question, (2) how characteristic it is for that variety, (3) and if there are any specific usages/terms particular to that variety that should be mentioned. There may be terms that exist in a variety that were not included due to this process. It is noteworthy to explain that due to to the nature of Arabic, if all possible terms for cognates were included, barring foreign loanwords and pronunciation, all lists will be almost exactly the same.

Transcription[edit]

Notes on Romanization:

  • a, ɑ, e, i, o and u correspond respectively to [a] or [ä] or [æ], [ɑ], [ɪ] or [ɛ], [i], [ɔ] and [u].
  • â, é, ă correspond respectively to [ɒː], [e], and [ʌ].
  • ā, ɑ̄, ē, ī, ō and ū stand for the same vowels, but pronounced longer. [aː], [ɑː], [ɛː] or [eː], [iː], [ɔː], [uː]
  • b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y and z correspond to their phonological equivalents in English for the most part.
  • θ stands for the th of English thick. [θ]
  • ð stands for the th of English this. [ð]
  • j stands for the j of English job. [d͡ʒ]
  • g stands for the g of English good. [ɡ] or [ɢ]
  • ğ corresponds to the Classical Arabic rendition of ج which is still preserved in a few varieties. It is somewhere between g and j. [ɟ] or [ɡʲ]
  • x stands for the sound of German ch in Ach! or j in Spanish jota. [x] or [χ]
  • ġ stands for the voiced counterpart of x, much as Spanish intervocalic g. [ɣ] or [ʁ]
  • š stands for the sh of English ship. [ʃ]
  • č stands for the ch of English chip. [t͡ʃ]
  • ž stands for the zh of English pleasure. [ʒ]
  • q stands for the typical rough q sound of Semitic languages. [q]
  • ħ stands for the typical rough h sound of Semitic languages. [ħ] or [ʜ]
  • ʕ and ˁ stand for the typical rough ˁ sound of Semitic languages. [ʕ] or [ʢ]
  • ʔ and ˀ stand for a glottal stop like in English uh-oh. [ʔ]
  • . underneath a letter means it is emphatic. e.g. [tˁ], [sˁ], [ðˁ], etc.
  • See Maltese alphabet for information on Maltese orthography used in this table.

Note: Vowels with a breve are brought to a low-mid articulation.

I[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Western/Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
1 I ˀanā ˀɑ̄na ʔɑnɑ, ʔana ʔɑ̄nī anɑ̄ ˀane(h) ānā ana ana, dana (statements) ana ana ēne, āna anɑ, anayɑ ānɑ jien
2 you
(singular)
ˀanta (m), ˀant(i); (do) -uka (m), -uki (f) entɑ (m), enti (f); (do) -ik (m), -ič (f) entɑ (m), entē (f); (do) -ɑk (m), -ik (f) ente (m), enti (f); (do) -ek (m), í(e)č (f) ăntɑ (m), ăntē (f); (do) -ăk (m), -kī (f) ant (m), anti (f); (do) ant, -ak (m), anti, -eš (f) intɑ (m), inti (f); (do) inta, -ek (m), inti, -iš (f) int (m), inti (f); (do) -ak (m), ik (f) enta (m), enti (f); (do) -ak, -īk (m), -ik, -ki (f) intɑ (m), inti (f); (do) -ɑk (m), -ik (f) inta, inte (m), inti (f); (do) -ak (m), -ik, -ki (f) inti; (do) -ik/inti ntɑ, ntayɑ (m), nti, ntiyɑ (f); (do) -ik (ă)ntɑ (m), (ă)ntiyyɑ (f); (do) -ak, -k (m), -ək, -k (f) int, inti; (do) -k (colored by verb's vowels)
3 he huwa (ə)hu huwwe huwwɑ ōwe, -we uo howwɑ hūwɑ huwwā həwɑ́ huwwɑ, hūwɑ huwa
4 we naħnu neħen nɑħnɑ̄ eħne niħnɑ̄ əħnə(h) naħana naxni eħna neħna ˀanīna (a)ħənā ħnɑ, ħnayɑ (n)ăħnɑ aħna
5 you
(plural)
ˀantum (m), ˀantunna (f) entu (m), enten (f) ento entu (m), enten (f) ăntim anto intū (m), intēn (f) intu entu intu intu(m) ntūma ntumɑ (ă)ntūmɑ (m), ntūmāti (f) intom
6 they hum (m), hunna (f) (ə)hum (m), (ə)hen (f) hennē huṃṃɑ (f), heṇṇ (f) hăyyəm, imme hom (m), hen (f) hum (m), hēn (f) innen homma hum (m), hun (f, rare) human (m/f), hinna (f, rare) hūma humɑ hūmɑ (m), hūmāti (f) huma
7 this hāðā (m), hāðihī (f) hɑ̄ða (m), hɑ̄ði (f) hɑydɑ̄ (m), haydē (f) hɑ̄ðɑ (m), hɑ̄y (f) hāðā (m), hāðī (f) ð̣ɑyyɑ̄h (m), tayyih (f) hāðī aða (m), aðī (f) da(h) (m), di(h) (f) dɑ (m), de(h) (f) dā (m), dī (f) hāða (m), hāði (f) hada (m), hadi (f) (hā)ðɑ (m), (hā)ði (f) dan (m), din (f)
8 that ðālika (m), tilka (f), tīka (f) haðɑ̄k (m), hāðīč (f) haydīk (m), hīdēk (f) ðɑ̄kɑ (m), ðíeče (f) hăðēk (m), hăðīk (f) ð̣ɑyyik (m), tayyik (f) hāðāk (m), hāðīk (f) áðak (m), áðik (f) dawwat (m), dayyat (f), (variants) dawwan, dawwak, dawwa, etc. dāk (m), dēk (f) dāk (m), dīk (f) hāðāka (m), hāðīka (f) hadak, dak (m), hadik, dik (f) ðāk(huwwa) (m), ðīk(hiyyɑ) (f) dak (m), dik (f)
9 here hunā əhni hōn əhnɑ̄na, əhnɑ̄ hūnī, hăwn hāna hinnī ɑwnɑ, annaxula hena; aho, henaho(wwat) (m), ahe, henahe(yyat) (f) hina hine hūnī, hnē hnɑ, hnayɑ hūn, hūnāti(yyɑ) hawn
10 there hunāka, θamma əhnɑ̄k honīk əhnɑ̄kɑ, ġɑ̄d (more yonder) hənuk, hăwnīk, ġādi hānāk hinnāk ɑwnké, axulla henāk, yahō (more yonder) hināk, hinūk hināk ġādī təmmɑ vɑmm, vɑmmāti(yyɑ), hūk (more yonder) hemm(hekk)
11 who man men mīn men(h)u mənu man mīn men mīn minu yātu škūn škun mən(hu) min
12 what mā, māða (before verbs), (bi) ʔayyi šayʔin (lit. (with) what thing) (w)ēš, šū, šenu šu, eiš šen(h)u, šə- ăšū meh, ʔayš, ʔayy (more which) ēš ē(h) šinu šunu, yātu (more who) šnuwwa (m), šneyya (f), šnūma (p) aš, ašnu š(ə)-, šən(hu)-, -āš x', x'inhu, (għal)xiex
13 where ʔayna wēn wein wíen wǎyṣɑb, wĭn (w)ayn fēn, ħēn ayn fēn wēn wēn wīn, fīn fin wăyn, mnīn fejn
14 when matā metɑ eimtīn, imtɑ šwaket, yamta (more whenever) ăšwaqet (f)ayyəħīn, mata mta miten emta mitēn mata waqtāš, waqtē fuqaš, imta ăyntɑ meta
15 how kayfa čēf kīf šlōn ăšōn kayf kē(f) kif, aššikl ezzāy kēf(in), izzāy (ki)kēf kīfāš, kīfē ki, kifaš škīv kif
16 not laysa (m), laysat (f), mā, lā (imperfect/verbs), lam (perfect/verbs), lan (future/verbs) mu, mōb, ma (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) miš, mu, ma (verbs) mū, mɑ (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) miš, ma...š (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) mā, lōb, lɑ̄ (imper.) la, má-, máy meš (occasionally used as a modal verb), moš, ma...š (verbs) meš, mɑ (verbs) mūš (frequently used as a modal verb), ma...š (verbs, some adjectives and nouns) maši, ma...š (verbs) mā, lā (imper.) mhux, ma...x (verbs)
17 all kull(a/i), kāmil, jamīʕ(u) kell(e) kell kull kill, kāməl kull, ğāmiʕ(iyyih) kull kull koll(e) kull kulla (l)kul kul, geʕ kul, kăməl kull
18 many kaθīr wɑ̄yed əktīr (ə)hwɑ̄ya ksīġ xɑyrɑ̄t, ziyādih wāgid, kiθīr, hazbīt xtīr ketīr ketīr, rɑ̄gid katīr barša bəzzaf yāsər ħafna
19 some bɑʕḍ, kam min bɑʕð̣ bɑʕɑḍ, šwayy(i) šwayyɑ, bɑʕɑð̣ băʕð̣, šwăyyi zɑ̄rɑt, bɑʕð̣ baʕð xɑytč š(e)wayya, kemmeyya bɑʕd š(w)iyya šwayya, baˁð̣ ši, šwiyyɑ băʕð̣ xi

II[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
20 few qɑlīl (min) gelīl, šwayya ʔalīl, ənṭūfi čam, šwayyɑ, qɑlīl šwiyyōni, pərčōni galīl, šwayyih šwī, bɑðɑʕ, qɑlīl fitté, šfé ˀolayyel galīl š(w)iyya, baˀed šwayya qlil, ši əglīl ftit
21 other ʔāxɑr θɑ̄ni, xlɑ̄f tēne lux, llāx ˀllāx šī, ġayr θānī axar tāni kutur, tɑ̄ni lˀāxar lēxɑr axəṛ ăwxər ieħor
22 one wāħid(un) (m), wāħida(tun) (f) wɑ̄ħed (m), weħde (f) wēħed, wɑ̄ħɑd (m), wɑħde (f) wɑħed (m), weħde (f) wīħəd (m), wiħdi (f) wāħid (m), wāħidih (f) wāħad (m), wāħada (f) (v)exen (m), (v)exte (f) wāħed (m), waħda (f) wɑ̄ħed (m), weħde (f) wāhid (m), wahde (f) wāħid (m), wēħda (f) waħed (m), weħdɑ (f), weħdin (p) wāħid (m), wāħida (f) wieħed (m), waħda (f), waħdiet (p)
23 two ʔiθnān(i) (m), ʔiθnatān (f); (oblique case) ʔiθnayn(i) (m), ʔiθnatayn(i) (f) θnēn (m), θəntēn (f) (i)tneyn θníen (m), θəntíen (f) θnīn (m), θintīen (f) (ʔi)θnayn (m), θintayn (f) θnēn (m), θantēn (f) xnayn etnēn etnēn tinēn (m), tittēn (f) zūz, θnīn žuž, tnin (only for >10) iðnayn (m), ðintayn (f) tnejn, żewġ (construct form)
24 three θalāθa(tun) θalɑ̄θa (ə)tlétē klɑ̄θa, tlɑ̄θa θāθi θalāθah θalāθa tlaθe talāta talɑ̄tɑ talāta θlāθa tlatɑ (ə)ðlāða tlieta
25 four ʔarbaʕa(tun) ʔɑrbɑʕa ʔɑrbʕɑ̄ ʔɑrbʕɑ ˀūbaʕ ʔɑrbɑʕɑh arbaʕa árpăˁa ˀɑrbɑˁɑ ɑrbɑʕɑ ˀarba (ˀa)rbˤā ṛəbʕa ărbʕa erbgħa
26 five xamsa(tun) xamsɑ xamse xuṃsɑ xăms(ă)i xamsih xumsa xampse xamsa xamsɑ xamsa xamsa xəmsɑ xămsa ħamsa
27 big kabīr č(e)bīr, ʕōd, k(a)bīr kbīr čebíeṛ kbīġ kabīr kibīr kpīr kebīr kabīr kabīr kbīr kbir əkbīr, ʕrīð̣ kbir
28 long ṭawīl ṭɑwīl ṭuwīl ṭɑwíel ṭăwīl ṭɑwīl ṭɑwīl tvīl twīl ṭɑwīel tɑwīl twīl ṭwil əṭwīl twil
29 wide wāsiʕ, raħīb, ʕɑrīḍ (more broad) wɑ̄seʕ, ʕarīð̣ ʕɑrīḍ, wēseʕ ʕɑṛīð̣, wɑ̄seʕ rāhi, wēsiʕ fsaħ, wāsiʕ wāseʕ, ʕɑrīð fsīˁī wāseˁ wɑ̄sɑʕ wasī wāseˤ waseʕ wāsəʕ wiesa'
30 thick ġɑlīð̣, θaxīn (more for materials), samīk (more stout) metīn smīk, ətxīn θəxīn, mčabben θăxīn matīn, ġazīr matīn, ġlīð̣ ˁɑpi texīn tɑxīn, mɑ̄kin (objects) samīn xšīn, ġlīð̣ ġliḍ əġlīð̣ (also 'religious') oħxon
31 heavy θaqīl θagīl tʔīl θegīl θăqīl θagīl, jawr, razīn (more wise) θiqīl, ħarīr θkīl teˀīl tɑgīl tɑgīl θqīl tqil əðgīl tqil
32 small ṣɑġīr zɑġīr, ṣɑġīr zɑġyūr, zġīr zġɑyyeṛ ˀṣġɑyyəġ zɑġīr, zuġayri ṣɑġīr zěˁīr soġɑnnɑn, soġɑyyɑr, soġɑntūt (more young) suġɑyyɑr saxayyar ṣġīr ṣġiṛ əsqīr żgħir, ċkejken
33 short qɑṣīr gaṣīr ʔɑsīr gṣɑyyeṛ qăṣiyyəġ gaṣīr qaṣʕūr, qaṣīr, kašīħ xmīn ˀosɑyyɑr guṣɑyyɑr gisɑyyɑr qṣīr qṣiṛ gṣīr qasir
34 narrow ḍɑyyiq ṣixīf, ð̣ɑyyig dayyiʔ geṣīf, ð̣ɑyyig ð̣ɑyyiq ð̣ɑyyig, ħawīṣ ð̣iyyaq dayyeˀ, medayyaˀ (more tight) dɑyyig dayyig ð̣iyyiq ḍiyyəq ð̣iyyig dejjaq
35 thin rɑqīq, rafīʕ, naħīf (more fine) dejīj, ð̣ʕīf (more weak) mɑmṣūʕ, nɑħīf, rʔīʔ mɑṣwi, refīʕ ġăqīq naħīf, rafīʕ ħaṭīṭ, gašūf mǎˁaer, θkīk rofɑyyɑˁ, rofɑnnɑˁ naħīf bɑ̄til žwayyid, ð̣ˁīf nħif, məskuf ərgīg rqiq
36 woman imrɑʔa, al-mɑrʔa (the woman) ħurma mɑrɑ mɑrɑ, mrayya mɑġɑ, mɑġiyyi mɑrih, ħurma, maklaf mɑrɑ mɑrɑ sett, wleyya (coarse) ħurmɑ, mɑrɑ, zōlɑ (more female person) mara mra mṛɑ mrɑ mara
37 man
(adult male)
rɑjul rayyɑ̄l rižžēl, zɑlɑme (inf) rijjɑ̄l ġijīl rağğāl riggīl, riggāl intsán rɑ̄gel zōl, rɑ̄jil rajul, rājil rāžil ṛɑžəl aragāž, rɑ̄žəl raġel
38 man
(human being)
ʔinsān, nafɑr, šɑxṣ (more person), bašɑr (humankind), nafs (more self), ʔibn ʔādam (literally Son of Adam) ʔɑ̄dmi, nafs, ˀensɑ̄n, ʔeben ʔɑ̄dam šɑxes, bɑšɑr, ˀensēn ʔɑ̄dmi, bašɑr, ˀensɑ̄n, banyɑ̄dam ˀādmi, ˀənsān, bɑšɑr bašar, ʔādami, ʔinsān ādami, hūdār intsán baniˀādam, ˀensān, nɑfɑr (more person) zōl, nɑfɑr, ˀinsɑ̄n nādum ˁabəd, šɑxṣ, insān (ˀi)nsan, bnadem aragāž, ˀənsān bniedem, uman
39 child
(a youth)
ṭifl (also infant), walad yɑ̄hel, bazer, ʕayyel wɑlɑd, ṭefel (more infant) jɑ̄hel ʕijī, wɑlɑd ğāhil gāhal morós, vilt ˁayyel, ṭefl (more infant) ṭefl, jenna wlēd ṭful, fazġūl darri ənšīr tifel

III[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
40 wife zawja, imrɑʔa (more woman), ħurma (more unit of harem) mɑṛɑ, murt-, ħuṛma mɑrɑ, mɑrt-, zowži, ħormi (chiefly Muslim) mɑrɑ, mɑrt-, ʔahal ð̣iġɑ, mɑġɑ marih, zawğa, ṭɑbīnah (second wife), ð̣urrɑh (second wife) zōga mprɑt- merɑ̄t- mɑrɑ, zōja mara, mart- mra, mart- mṛɑt- zawža mara
41 husband baʕl, zawj, rɑjul (more man) rɑjel, rīl zowž, žoz rɑjel, zōj zăwj zawğ zōg žɑwz, intsán gōz zōj, baxt rājil rāžil ṛɑžəl zawž żewġ, raġel
42 mother ʔumm ʔuṃṃ ʔemm (ə)ṃṃ, ʔuṃṃ ˀimm ʔumm umm umm mɑmt-, omm umm ˀum ˀum ṃṃʷ- umm(-) omm
43 father ʔabb, ʔabā- ʔuḅu-, ʔɑbb bēy- abū-, abb ˀabō-, ˀabb ʔabb, ʔabū- ōb yapát- bɑbɑ̄-, abū-, ˀɑbb abū- ˀabba, ˀabu- bū- bu-, ḅḅʷɑ ab, bū- missier
44 animal ħaywān, dābba (beasts of burden), bahīma (beast) ħayaẉɑ̄n, sɑ̄nya (beasts of burden) ħaywēn, dabbi ħaywɑ̄n ħăywān ħayawān, dābbih našara, ħēwān xeván ħayawān bahīma, ħayawɑ̄n (also pejorative), waħš (wild animal) hayawān ħayawān ħəywan ħăywān annimal, bhima
45 fish samaka, ħūt (any large fish, whale), ṣɑyd (catch of fish) smičɑ semkē semča sămăki samakih, ṣɑyd, ħūtih (also whale) samaka, ṣēd, bābṭīni (small) samaka ħūt, ṣīr hūt ħūta ħutɑ ħūt ħuta
46 bird ṭɑ̄ʔir, ʕaṣfūrɑ (sparrow) ṭēr ṭɑyr, ʔɑṣfūrē (usu. small) ṭēṛ, ʕaṣfūr (small only) ṭɑyġ ṭɑ̄yir ðʕār ˁɑsfūrɑ, ṭēr (zool., archaic) ṭēr, ʕasfūr (usu. small), zarzūr (small) tɑyrɑ̄y ˁaṣfūr bəṛṭɑl ṭăyr għasfur
47 dog kalb čalb kalb čaleb kalib kalb kelb kilp, kyopek kalb kalib, garzan (hunting), šalag (non-hunting, lap-dog) kelib kalb kəlb kălb kelb
48 louse qamla gamla ʔamlē gamḷa qămli deðrī, gummalih šnīt kample ˀamlāya gamla, ṣɑwɑ̄bɑ gemel qamla qəmlɑ dămla qamla
49 snake ħayya, θuʕbān (any serpent), ħanaš (viper, adder), ʔafʕa (poisonous) dāb, ħanaš (poisonous) ħayyi ħayya, ħyɑ̄yɑ, ṣeḷḷ (small), ʕerbīd (large) ħăyyi ħanaš ħanīš, ṣell (small) ˁɑfɑ teˁbān taʕbɑ̄n, dɑbīb dābi, debīb ħnaš ħənš, lfʕa ħnaš, ṣăffɑ̄r (venomous) serp, lifgħa
50 worm dūda dūd dūdi, sūsi salbūħ, dūd dūdah, wagzih, taʕālih, ħūt (more fish, whale) dūd tut (silkworm) dūda dūdɑ dūda dūda duda ădūd dudu, ħanex (earthworm)
51 tree šajarɑ šyɑṛɑ sižrē šajarɑ, šejrɑ (more squash, bush, shrub) sijăġɑ šeğarih šagara ðentra šɑgɑrɑ, sɑgɑrɑ šɑdɑrɑ šɑdɑrɑ̄y šužra, sužra šəžṛa ṣədrɑ̄yɑ siġra
52 forest ġāba, ħirš (more thicket) ġɑ̄ba ħerš, ġābē ġɑ̄ba ġāba ġābah ġāba ġɑ̄bɑ (bakān) šeder ketīr fī ġāba ġaba ġābe, ʕŭgda (also thicket) foresta, masġar
53 stick
(of wood)
ʕaṣɑ̄, ʕūd (also piece of wood), ħaṭɑb (piece of firewood) ʕūd, ʕačwɑ ʕɑṣɑ̄(ye) ʕūda, ħɑṭbɑ (also firewood), līṭɑ (thin) ʕɑṣɑ̄yi, ʕŭdi ʕuṣyah, ʕūdih (also root) ʕōd, qubb, marqūṣ (large), bākūra (small) ˁɑssɑ ˁɑṣɑ̄yɑ ʕɑṣɑ hatab, ˀasāya ˁṣā qṭib, ʕṣɑ dəbbūs bastun, għasluġ, ħatar
54 fruit fākiha, fawākih (plural), θamarɑ fɑ̄k(e)ha, mīwɑ fwékē mēwɑ, fɑ̄kehɑ fākihi, mīwi fākiha famara fekye (more dried fruit) fakha sɑmɑr, fɑ̄kha yalda, ˀiyāl (plural) ġalla dessiġ, ġəllɑ, fakyɑ ləħdaž, ðămra frott
55 seed zarʕ, ħabba, biðra, bizr bɑdɑr, bazir bizr bazra, bɑðrɑ, ħabba baziġ, ħăbb, ʕəjo (more pit) ħabbih, baðarih biðara pizr bezr, taˀāwi tirɑ̄b, tɑgɑ̄wi, bazr (pedantic) tērāb, bizre zurrīˁa zərriʕa, ʕḍəm (more pit) lăzraʕ żerriegħa
56 leaf waraqɑ wruga, xōṣ (palm) wɑrʔɑ̄ warga waġăqɑ waragih ħūṣɑ fíllo, varka waraˀet šɑgɑr waraga waršāl, warga warqa wəṛqɑ warăga werqa
57 root jaðr, ʕirq (also artery) ʕirj, jaðer šerš ʕereg jăðiġ, ʕiriq ğiðr, ʕūdih (also stick) giðar gedr ʕerg ˀirig ˁirq ždər, loħ ʕǐrg għerq
58 bark
(of tree)
liħāʔ, qilf ħeṭɑb (more wood), yedeʕ (more branch) ʔešri gešer qišiġ gišrih qišara gedˁ gišrɑ, girf girf qišra qəšṛa gušrá qoxra
59 flower zahrɑ, ward (rose) zahra zɑhrɑ wared, warda wăġdāyi zahrah zɑhɑrɑ, warada vɑrté warda nɑwwɑ̄r nuwār nawwāra nuwwɑ́ṛɑ nəwwɑ̄r fjura, nawra

IV[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
60 grass ʕušb, ħašīš (also Cannabis) ʕešeb, ħašīš, rɑbīʕ (more spring) ħašīš, ʕošb θayyel, ʕešeb (more pasture) ħăšīš ħašīš, ʕušb ħašīš, kutīl (common type) šxéx, tšeˁīr negīla gašš, umɑṣɑ̄biʕa (desert grass), tarba (water grass), najīla (water grass) geš ħšīš rbiʕ ărbīʕa, ɑlɑmūz (more straw) ħaxix
61 rope ħabl ħabel ħabl ħabel ħabil salabih, ħabl bāra, ħbāl xɑpl ħabl ħabl habil ħbal ṭwɑl, ħbəl, kurdɑ (thin) ħbăl ħabel
62 skin
(of a person)
jild, bašarɑ (more complexion) yeld, bašara (more complexion) želd jeled jilid ğild, bašarih (more complexion) gild geld jeld jild, farwa žilda žəld ăžžəl, žəld ġilda
63 meat
(as in flesh)
laħm laħam laħm laħam laħim šerkih, laħm laħam láxm laħma laħm leham lħam lħam ləħăm laħam
64 blood damm damm damm damm dămm dam damm timm damm damm damm dam dam dămm demm
65 bone ʕɑð̣m ʕɑð̣ṃ(ɑ) ʕɑḍmi ʕɑð̣uṃ, čaʕab (also bottom, end; more for animals) ʕăð̣im ʕuð̣mih ʕɑð̣im ˁɑḍm(ɑ) ʕɑḍm ˀadem ˁð̣am ʕḍem ʕð̣ăm għadma
66 fat
(noun)
samn, dahn, šaħm (also grease) dehen, šaħam šaħm, dahen dasam, šaħam šəħim šaħm, duhn qaṭmīm, mašaħ toxn šaħm, dehn, laħma bēdɑ dihn, šaħm dihin, samen šħam šħem səmn xaħam, simna
67 egg bayḍɑ bēð̣a beyḍɑ, bɑyḍɑ bíeð̣ɑ bĭð̣a bayð̣ɑh bēð̣a peð bēdɑ bēḍɑ bēda ˁað̣ma biḍɑ bayð̣ɑ bajda
68 horn qɑrn gɑrn ʔɑr(e)n geren qăġin garn qaran ˀɑrn gɑrn gurn garn qərn gărn qarn
69 tail ðanab, ðayl ðēl daneb ðíel ðĭl sublih, ðayl ðēl tumpye dēl danab danab baˁbūṣ šwwal, zɑnṭiṭ sbīb, nəwwāša, āgilāl (horses) denb
70 feather
(rather not down)
rīša rīša rīše rīša ġīšāyi rīšah rīša rīša rīš rīša, sūf rīša riša rīša rixa
71 hair šaʕr šɑʕɑr šʕɑrɑ šɑʕɑr šɑʕeġ ṣūf, šaʕr šaʕar šaxvé, šaˁar (pubic) šɑˁr šɑʕr šaˀur šˁɑr šəʕrɑ goffa, šăʕra (pubic) xagħar
72 head rɑʔs ṛɑ̄s rɑ̄s rɑ̄s, ṣmɑ̄x (somewhat coarse) ġɑ̄ṣ rɑʔs, rɑ̄s rās mox demāġ, rɑ̄s (more top of the head) rɑ̄s ras rās rɑs rɑ̄ṣ ras
73 ear ʔuðun ʔeðen dāynē, edn ʔīðɑ̄n, ʔeðen ˀəðin ʔeðn, ʔuðn ðin iðn wedn ɑdɑ̄n uden wðin wdən wðŭn widna
74 eye ʕayn ʕēn ʕayn ʕēn ʕĭen ʕayn ʕēn ˁɑyn ˁēn ʕayn ˀēn ˁīn ʕin ʕăyn għajn
75 nose ʔanf xašem menxɑr xašem xăšim nuxrih xušum mɑxúr maraxīr nɑxrɑ muxer xšam, mnēxer (abstract, coarse) nif xənāfĭr mnieħer
76 mouth famm būz, θamm, ħalj (coarse) temm ħaleg θimm lugf, fumm θōm xank boˀˀ, ħanak (animals, coarse) xašm xašem žalġa, fum fumm vum ħalq, fomm
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
sinna, ðars (molar) ðers, senn (not molars, pedantic) senn senn sin, čāġōši (more molar) ðirs (most teeth, molars), sĕnnih (incisor) ðars, gūhara (incisors), mɑṭɑ̄ħɑn (molar) sinn senna senn senn sinna dərsɑ, sɘnnɑ (not molars, pedantic) sănn sinna
78 tongue lisān lesɑ̄n lisēn əlsɑ̄n ˀəlsūn lisān lisān san lesān lisɑ̄n lisān lsān lsan lsān lsien
79 fingernail ð̣ifr, ð̣ufr ð̣ufer defr ʔeð̣fer ʔəð̣feġ ʔuð̣fur, ð̣ufr ð̣ɑ̄fūr ðufr dɑ̄fer, dofr ḍufur dufr ð̣far ḍfər ð̣fər difer

V[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
80 foot qɑdam, rijl jadam, rīl ežr rejel, qɑdam ġijil gadam, riğl qadam, kaff ižr regl kurɑ̄ʕ, rejl kurā, rijl sāq ržəl krāʕ, rəžl sieq
81 leg sāq, rijl (more foot) rīl, krɑ̄ʕ (esp. animals) ežr, režəl rejel, pɑ̄čɑ, krɑ̄ʕ (animals), zerr (also button), pɑ̄yɑ (objects) ṣāq riğl, sāg sāq, rigl ižr regl kurɑ̄ʕ, rejl kurā, sag ržil ržəl sāg, krāʕ (more foot) riġel
82 knee rukba ričba, rukba rekbi rukbɑ ġəkbay rukbih rikba rokba rukba rukba rukba rukbɑ rŭkba rkoppa
83 hand yadd ˀīd, yed ʔīd īd īd yad yadd it ˀīd ˀīd id yid yədd eĭd id
84 wing janāħ janāħ žēneħ əjnɑ̄ħ əjnâħ ğanāħ genāħ jɑnɑ̄ħ jenāh žnāħ žənħ žənħa ġewnaħ
85 belly bɑṭɑn, miʕda (medical) karš, bɑṭen bɑṭn, meʕdē bɑṭeṇ bɑṭin, kiriš bɑṭn, karš (more guts) bɑṭɑn, qɑrš pɑtn bɑṭn, meˁda bɑṭn, karš beten kirš meʕda, bṭen, kərš žŏwf, kirš (more abdomen) żaqq
86 guts ʔamʕāʔ, ʔaħšāʔ, muṣrɑ̄n, mɑṣɑ̄rīn (plural) muṣrɑ̄n mɑṣɑrīn mṣɑ̄rīn, menbɑ̄ṛ (animals) măṣīġīn mɑṣɑ̄rīn, karš mɑ̄ṣūr psarín ħaša, mɑsɑrīn ˀamʕɑ̄ʔ, mɑṣɑrīn (more animals) musurān bzīz, mṣārīn məṣrɑn mŭṣɑ̄rīn, kĭrš (more abdomen) msaren
87 neck ʕanq, raqaba rguba raʔbē rugbɑ, ʕuneg ġăqqabi ragabih, rugbih raqba, ħalq raġbé raˀaba ragaba regaba raqbā, krūmā (more nape) ʕənq ragba għonq
88 back ð̣ahar, qufā ð̣ɑher dɑhr, ʔɑfɑ (more nape) ð̣ɑhɑr, guf̣ɑ (abstract) ð̣ɑheġ gafā, ð̣ɑhr (more abstract) ð̣ɑhɑr ðɑxr dɑhr ḍɑhr dahr ð̣hɑr ḍhər, llur gfa, ð̣hər, llūrɑ (more behind) dahar
89 breast θadiy, nahad, ṣidr (more chest) dēd, ṣɑder (also chest) sedr (also chest), bezz (coarse) dēs, θedɑ (more udder) ṣɑdeġ ð̣ɑrrih, ṣɑdr (more abstract), bizz (more udder) θawīd, dīdaʕ (lactating) suðr, pizz bezz, nihd (usu. young women), sedr (more chest) ṣɑdr, nahad (young woman), šɑṭur (older woman) dēd bazzūla bəzzulɑ băzzūla sider, żejża
90 heart qɑlb, fuʔād (also liver; poetic) gaḷb ʔal(e)b gaḷuḅ, (ə)f̣f̣ɑ̄d, del (abstract) ffɑ̄d, qălib galb qɑlb (human), gōf (animal) kɑlp ˀalb galb gelb qalb qəlb gălb qalb
91 liver kabad, fuʔād (also heart; poetic) čab(ə)d kebed kabed, meʕlāg (more food) kabad, mĕʕlāq lăħmɑġ kabid kibda kaspé kebda kibdɑ kebd kibda kəbdɑ kăbda fwied
92 to drink šariba šereb širib šerab šiġib širib šrāb širep šereb šereb šereb šrab šrəb šrəb xorob
93 to eat ʔakala kal ʔakal ʔakal ʔɑkɑl (ʔa)kal kil kel kal ʔakal akel klā kla wkəl kiel
94 to bite ʕɑḍḍɑ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕɑḍḍ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕăð̣ð̣ gaħaṣ, lɑgɑṣ (more from animals) ʕɑð̣ð̣ ˁɑðð ˁɑdd, ˀɑtɑm (more bite off) ˁɑḍḍ, lɑgɑm ˀadd gdim gdəm, ʕəḍḍ ʕăð̣ð̣ gidem
95 to suck mɑṣṣ, rɑḍiʕa (more suckle) mɑṣṣ mɑṣṣ, mɑʔʔ mɑṣmɑṣ, mɑṣṣ mɑṣ mɑṣmɑṣ, mɑṣṣ rð̣āʕ ðirˁé, mɑss mɑṣṣ mɑṣṣ mass, radī (more suckle) rð̣aˁ məṣṣ măṣṣ seff, reda'
96 to spit baṣɑqa tefal, bezag bɑzɑʔ tefal, taffal tafal dafal, bazag (for qat) bzāq pizek taff bazag bazag bzaq bzəq tfəl, băzzag (noisily) beżaq
97 to vomit qɑ̄ʔɑ zɑ̄ʕ nɑṭɑʔ, ražʕɑ̄ zɑwwɑʕ, tqɑyyɑ ˀəstənfăʕ, zɑwwɑʕ, tqɑyyɑ ṭɑrɑš, gað̣ɑf radd, zɑʕ ražžˁé, staffˁé raggaˁ, ṭɑrreš (coarse) gidif, istɑfrɑġ dafag rad gəll, rədd, ruwwəʕ rŭdd, gð̣ɑv qala'
98 to blow
(as wind)
tanassama, habba, nafaxɑ nefax, haff ṭeleʕ, nɑfɑx habb, nufax nafax nafax nafax nafax nafax, nassem (breeze) nɑfɑx, habb nafax nfax ṣɑṭ nfăx nefaħ
99 to breathe tanaffasa, tanassama tnaffas tnɑffɑs tnaffas tnăffas, jăġ năfăs tnaffas nīsam, tnaffas etnaffes tenaffas tenaffas tnaffis tnəffəs, ṭəllaʕ nnəfəs tnăffas ħa n-nifs

VI[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
100 to laugh ḍɑħika ð̣eħač ḍɑħɑk ð̣eħak, kɑrkɑr (noisily) ð̣iħik ð̣iħik, tikaʕkaʕ (nosily) ð̣ħāk, kɑrkɑr taxak daħak (also smile), haˀhaˀ (somewhat crude) daħik dehek ð̣ħak ḍħak, kakɑ ð̣ħăk daħaq, daħak
101 to see rɑʔā, bɑṣirɑ čɑ̄f šēf šɑ̄f ġišiʕ ʔibsɑr šāf, ħāli kišˁé, ra šāf nɑẓɑr, šɑ̄f šāf šāf, rā šaf šāv ra
102 to hear samiʕa semaʕ sɑmɑʕ semaʕ simiʕ simiʕ smāʕ simˁé semeˁ semeʕ semī smaˁ sməʕ smăʕ sema'
103 to know
(a fact)
darɑ (news), ʕalima (ideas), ʕarafa (people) derɑ (ideas), ʕerɑf (people, know-how) ʕerif, deri (know-how) derɑ (ideas, events), šeʕɑr (about people; also feel), ʕerɑf (people, know-how, events) ʕiġif deri (ideas, objects), ħafɑð̣ (languages, know-how; also memorize, guard), ʕirif, ʕilim (people, events, ideas) dirā (ideas), ʕrɑ̄f (people) ˁiref ˁeref xeber, ʕirif ˀaref ˁraf ʕrəf ʕrɑf, fṭăn jaf
104 to think ħasiba, ʔiʕtaqɑda (more suppose), fakkarɑ, ð̣ɑnna (suppose) fakkir, ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fakker, ʕtɑʔɑd (more consider) ʕteqɑd (also presume), fakker, ṣufan, tfɑṭṭan (more recall), ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fakkar fakkar, ð̣ɑnn (more presume) gaʕan, fakkar, qatt (more presume) ftaen-, enómiza- fɑkkɑr, ẓɑnn (more presume) iftɑkɑr, ẓɑnn (more presume) dɑnn, feker xamməm, fakkir nuɑ, xəmməm, fbal- stăʕql, txămməm ħaseb
105 to smell
(sense odor)
šamma šamm šamm š(t)amm š(t)amm š(t)amm šamm šamm šamm šamm, kɑrɑf šemm šam šamm šəmm xamm
106 to fear xāfa, xɑšia xɑ̄f xāf xɑ̄f, rtehab xɑ̄f xɑ̄f fizaʕ, ftaðar fizˁé xāf xɑ̄f xāf xāf xaf xāv beża'
107 to sleep nāma, raqɑda ragad, nɑ̄m nēm nɑ̄m nɑ̄m ragad nām nam nām nɑ̄m reged, nām rqad nʕas rgad raqad
108 to live ʕāša, ħiya (come to life), sakana (reside) ʕāš ʕāš ʕɑ̄š ʕɑ̄š ʕāš, ʕammir, sakan (more reside) ʕāš, bāt ˁaš ˁāš ʕɑ̄š ˀāš ˁāš ħyɑ, ʕaš skin, ʕāš għex
109 to die māta mɑ̄t mēt mɑ̄t mɑ̄t mɑ̄t māt, fhāṭ mat māt mɑ̄t māt māt mat twăffa, māt miet
110 to kill qɑtala, ðabaħa (sacrificial kill) getal, ðebaħ, mawwat ʔɑtɑl ketal, qerɑð̣ qătal gatal qtāl maet ˀatal, mawwet gatal katal qtal qtal kətăl qatel
111 to fight ħāriba, qɑ̄tala hɑ̄wɑš, ħɑ̄rab xēniʔ tḅɑ̄ṣaṭ, tmɑ̄lax, tʕɑ̄rek tqɑ̄tal lābağ, tgātal qɑ̄ṭaʕ, tqɑ̄tel starrˁé, ðarep etˁārek, etxāneˀ (more quarrel) ħārab, xānag dāwas, jāhad (more struggle) tˁārik ddabəz fɑ̄ṭăn, tʕārək iġġieled
112 to hunt
(transitive)
ṣɑ̄da, qinɑṣ (snipe) genɑṣ ṣṭɑ̄ḍ ṣɑ̄d ṣɑ̄d gɑnɑṣ ṣɑ̄d esṭɑ̄d isṭɑ̄ḍ (with arms), ginɑṣ (with dogs) sɑ̄d, ganas ˀisṭād ṣiyyəd ṣɑyyɑd, drăs ('go' hunting) ikkaċċja
113 to hit ḍɑraba ṭɑgg, ðerɑb dɑrɑb ðurɑb, buṣɑṭ (also beat up), lečam, haff (quickly) ðăġăb labağ ð̣ɑrɑb takk dɑrɑb, xɑbɑt ṣɑ̄b, ḍɑrɑb degg, katal (more kill) ð̣rab ḍrəb băṭṭ laqat, darab, ta daqqa
114 to cut qɑṭaʕa (more cut off), qɑṣṣ (more clip) geṭaʕ ʔɑṣṣ gaṣṣ qɑṣṣ gaṣṣ, falag (wood) qɑṣṣ, šxāṭ katˁā ˀɑtɑˁ gɑṭɑʕ gatā qaṣ qṭəʕ gṭăʕ qata'
115 to split qasama, šaqq gesam šaʔʔ fajj, fešag qaṣṣam, făššăq, fɑṣăl falaʕ šṭɑ̄r šakk šaˀˀ, ˀassem šagg, felax gesem, šagg šaqq qṣem, fəlləħ fgăs qasam
116 to stab
(or stick)
ṭɑʕana ṭeʕan dɑrɑb-sekkīn, ṭɑʕɑn ṭeʕan ṭɑʕan ṭɑʕɑn ṭɑˁɑn ṭɑʕɑn taˀan dġar tʕaz dăgg nifed, daqq b'sikkina
117 to scratch
(an itch)
xadaša, xamaša, ħakka (more scrape) ħačč, xammaš xadaš jelax, xarmaš ħăkk, xadaš ħakk, baxaš šarxam xakk xarbeš, hɑrɑš (only for itches) xarmaš naxaš xabbiš, ħakk xəbbəš, sərr xmŭš ħakk
118 to dig ħafarɑ ħefɑr ħɑfɑr ħufɑr, nebaš ħăfăġ ħafɑr ħfɑ̄r xiver ħɑfɑr ħɑfɑr hafer ħfar ħfer žhăr ħaffer
119 to swim sabaħa, ʕām (also float) ʕām sebeħ sebaħ, fɑ̄j sibiħ sabaħ, ʕām (more float) sbāħ, ʕām tăˁássel, kalimpa ˁām ʕām ˀarrad fi l-alme ˁām ʕam ʕām għam

VII[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
120 to fly ṭɑ̄ra ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r ṭɑġ ṭɑ̄r ṭār ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r tār tɑ̄r ṭɑr ṭɑ̄r tar
121 to walk mašā mešɑ, ṣɑ̄r mešē jɑ̄ pyɑ̄da, meša (more leave, move), geħaf məši xeṭi, maša (more go) mšā, tmaxṭar miše(k) xadha maši, meši (more leave) maša sār, maša (more go) mšā ṣɑr, tməššɑ (more take a walk) twāṭ mexa
122 to come ʔatā, jāʔa eža jɑ̄ ğēʔ ža ge(h) ja žā ža ža ġie
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
istalqɑ̄, raqɑda, tamaddada (recline), atkaʔa (recline, lean) nṭerɑħ tṣɑṭṭɑħ, tlɑʔʔɑħ njeṭɑl, nbuṭɑħ (more sprawl) tmaddăd mtadd, tké mtadd, tkā etmadded, nām rɑgɑd, inbɑṭɑħ reged, takka (also lean) tmad tmədd, təkkɑ (more lean) ătkɑ mtedd
124 to sit jalasa, qaʕada yelas, geʕad ʔɑʕɑd geʕad nĕbĕṡ, bəčex (coarse) gambar, ğalas glās, stawqaʕ kaˁa aˁad gaʕad, gannab gaˀad qˁad gləs gʕăd qagħad (bilqiegħda), poġġa (bilqiegħda)
125 to stand qɑ̄ma, waqɑfa wugaf, fazz wɑʔɑf wugaf wiqif sannab, wigif wqāf ekef weˀef wagaf wigif wqif wqəf wgəv qagħad bilwieqfa
126 to turn
(change direction)
dārɑ, ʔanāba laff berem, dɑ̄r ʕekaf, (n)dɑ̄r ndɑ̄ġ ʕɑṣɑr, dawwɑr, laff liff tɑr laff dawwɑr, itlafat kanjar dār dɑr sădd, glăb dar
127 to fall
(as in drop)
saqɑta, waqɑʕa ṭɑ̄ħ, wugaʕ wɑʔɑʕ, ʔɑšɑṭ wugaʕ šăqləb nikiʕ, nɑṭɑl, ṭɑ̄ħ ṭɑ̄ħ, sqɑ̄ṭ vɑkˁɑ weˀeˁ wagaʕ wagā, daffag ṭāħ ṭɑħ ṭɑ̄ħ waqa'
128 to give ʔaʕṭɑ̄ ʕeṭɑ ʕɑṭɑ̄ neṭɑ ʕăṭɑ̄ ʕidda ʕṭɑ̄ edda adda ˀanta ˁṭā ʕṭɑ, (m)əddɑ ʕṭɑ ta
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
ʔaxaða, masika jawwad, lezam kamaš lezam misik šibiħ, lazam masak, qbāð̣ (more catch) pisék mesek misik karab šad rfəd ħkam żamm, ħa (more to take)
130 to squeeze ʕaṣɑrɑ, ḍɑġaṭɑ (compress) ʕeṣɑr ʕɑṣɑr, šadd ʕeṣɑr, jeʕaṣ ʕăṣăġ falħaṣ, ð̣ɑġɑṭ palas, ˁiser ˁɑṣɑr ʕɑṣɑr hakk ˁṣar ʕṣɑr ăʕṣər għafas, rass, għasar
131 to rub ħaffa, faraka, dalaka (more massage), ħakka (more scrape) ʕerak, ferak fɑrɑk furɑk, delak ħăkk, făġăk farak ʕrāk, dukk xaff, maˁak daˁak ʕɑṣṣɑr farak, hakk (more squeeze) ħak frək ħăkk, ʕrăk għorok
132 to wash ġasala ġesal ġassel ġesal ġasal ġasal ġsāl ˁássel ġasal ġassal xasal ġsal ġsal ġsal ħasel
133 to wipe maħā, masaħa mašš mɑsɑħ mesaħ, mašš misiħ (ə)mħi massex masaħ masaħ gašš msaħ msəħ, zuwwəl (with cloth) zăyyɑf (with cloth), msăħ (also rub out) mesaħ
134 to pull jarra, saħaba, jabaða (more draw i.e. a weapon) tall sadd, saħab jaṛṛ šəħšăṭ šadd sadd, saħab žarr šadd šadd jarr žbid žbad ănṭăr ġibed
135 to push dafaʕa defaʕ dafaš defaʕ, darfaʕ, deʕač dăfăʕ dahaf kadaš, zafar tafaš zaˀˀ dɑfɑr, lezz lazza, gamma daz dfəʕ, dərr dăkmɑr imbotta, deffes
136 to throw ramā, laqia ðabb, ħeðaf šalaħ, zatt, kabb (more throw away) šemɑr, ðabb (also throw away) ħəšăl, ṭerr, zett ramā, ðabal, rāğam (more for stones) ramā, ʕqār, lwāħ šalax, rma (more throw away) ħedef, rama (more throw away) jadaʕ, rama rama, xatt (more throw in) šayyaˁ, lwaħ laħ, siyyəb lāħ, zrăg (more throw away) tefa', xeħet, rema (to throw away)
137 to tie rɑbɑṭɑ ribɑṭ, šebač rɑbɑt ʕegad, šadd rəbɑṭ, ʕăqăd rɑbɑṭ, šadd rawaṭ, ħzām rɑpɑt rɑbɑṭ ṛɑbɑṭ rebet, šadd rbɑṭ rbɑṭ, ʕqɑd ʕgad rabat
138 to sew qɑṭɑba, xɑ̄ṭa šall, xɑ̄ṭ xɑyyet xɑyyɑṭ xăyyiṭ xɑyyɑṭ, šall xēṭ šall xɑyyɑṭ xɑyyɑṭ xayyat xɑyyiṭ xəyyəṭ šəll, xăyyɑṭ (more make clothes) ħiet
139 to count ʕadda, ħasiba (more think), ʔaħṣɑ̄ (compute) ʕadd, ħeṣɑ ʕadd ħesab, ʕadd (more reckon) ħasab, ʕădd ʕadd, ħasab ħsāb ˁadd ˁadd ʕadd hasab ħsib ħsəb ʕədd għadd

VIII[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
140 to say qɑ̄la gāl ʔēl gɑ̄l qɑ̄l gāl qāl kal ˀāl gɑ̄l gāl qāl gal, duɑ gāl qal
141 to sing ġanna, našada (sing praise) qanna, ġanna ġanna ġanna ġannɑ ġanna, šadɑ, našad ġinnā ˁanna ġanna ġanna xanna ġannā ġənnɑ ġănna, škur (also praise) għanna, kanta
142 to play laʕiba leʕab leʕeb leʕab liʕib liʕib lʕāb, zarr leˁep leˁeb laʕab leˀeb lˁab lʕab lʕib lagħab
143 to float ṭɑfā, ʕām (also swim) ṭɑ̄f, ʕām fēš ṭufɑ, sɑyyɑs (moving) ṭăfā ʕām ʕām ˁām ʕām ˀām, ˀarrad fi rās l-alme ˁām ʕam ʕām għam fil-wiċċ, żamm fil-wiċċ
144 to flow sāla, jarɑ̄ jerɑ, sāl žɑrɑ̄, sēl sāħ, jerɑ jăġā ğɑrɑ, sāl (ə)šʕi geri jara jara žrā sal, nəbbaʕ sāl ġera
145 to freeze ajlada, jammada, θallaja jemad, θallaj, fɑrraz sɑʔɑʕ, žallad jemad, θelaj jimid θallağ, ğimid, farrɑz fɑrrɑz, talleg jamad, fɑrrɑz jamad žmid žməd, ttəlləž ăglaṣ, žmăd għaqad, inġazza, iffriża
146 to swell intafaxa, warima ntefax warem gabgab, wurɑm wiġim šabağ, ntefax ntafax virem werem, taffax wirim, innafax nnafax tinfax ttənfəx ntfax, wərăm ntefaħ
147 sun šams šams šams šames šamis šams šims šimps šams šams šams, harrāya samš, šams šəmš šams xemx
148 moon qɑmɑr gumɑr ʔɑmɑr gumɑr qămăġ gamɑr qmɑ̄r kamar ˀɑmɑr gɑmɑr gamar, šahar gamra qəmr gămăr qamar
149 star najm, kawkab (more planet) nī(y)ma nažme najma, najem năjmi kawkab, nağm nigma nažmé negma najma nejma nižma nəžmɑ năžma kewkba, stilla
150 water māʔ, miyāh mɑ̄y mɑyy(i) ṃɑ̄y mɑ̄y mēʔ māy, mī moe mɑyyɑ mōya, elmī alme, mōya ma ălme ilma
151 rain mɑṭɑr muṭɑr šeti, šitē muṭɑr mɑṭɑġ maṭɑr mɑṭɑr, raħma, rɑðɑ̄ð (heavy), naff (light) šité mɑtɑr, šeta mɑṭɑr matar, alme štā štɑ ăsħāb xita
152 river nahr nɑhɑr, sɑ̄b (small) nɑhr šɑṭṭ, nahar šɑṭṭ nahr nɑhɑ̄r, sāqiya (more brook) paθpun nɑhr baħr, gēf bahar, batah (temporary/small river) wād wad ăbħɑr (also sea), năhăr xmara
153 lake buħayra, birka (more pond) berča (more pond) bħeyrɑ buħayṛɑ bŭħăyṛɑ ġadīr (more pond), buħayreh gābiya (also trough, pond) ˁɑyn-purke berka, boħēra mōya, berka bahar sabxa ḍayɑ ăbħayrɑ għadira
154 sea
(as in ocean)
yamm, baħr baħar bɑħr bɑħɑr bɑħiġ baħr baħr, ðarbe (stormy), kazzī (rough), qɑlħɑ (calm, flat) paxr bɑħr baħr (elmāliħ) bahar el māleh bħar bħɑr ăbħɑr baħar
155 salt milħ melħ malħ meleħ miliħ milħ milħ milx malħ milħ melh milħ məlħ məlħ melħ
156 stone ħajɑrɑ, ṣɑxɑr ħiyɑr ħɑžrɑ ħjɑ̄ṛa, ṣaḷbūx, ṣɑxrɑ ħăjɑġ ħiğɑ̄rɑh, miğʕār, ṣɑxr dilf, ħagāra xažra ṭūbɑ, ħɑgɑrɑ ħɑjɑr hajarāy ħɑžrɑ ħəžra, kurd ħăžra ġebla, ħaġra
157 sand raml ṛɑmel rɑml rɑmuḷ ġɑməl nays, rɑml bɑṭɑħ, rɑmɑl rɑmlɑ rɑmlɑ ramla rmal rəmlɑ ătrāb, ləħaṣ ramel
158 dust ġubɑ̄r, turɑ̄b ʕɑỵɑ̄y, ġbɑ̄r, ṭōz (also dust storm) ġɑbrɑ̄ ʕɑjɑ̄j, ṭōz ṭăwz ʕağāğ, ġbɑ̄r ġubār, ṣqārīt trap ˁofɑ̄rɑ, torɑ̄b ʕajāj, turɑ̄b turāb, ˀojāj ġabra ġobrɑ qăbra trab, għabra
159 earth
(as in soil)
ʔarḍ, θarɑ̄, ṭīn (more clay) ʔɑrð̣, ʕɑ̄fūr (also dust) trɑ̄b, ɑreḍ trɑ̄b, gāʕ (more ground) ṭəġāb turbah, ğirbah (unfertile), gāʕ (more ground) ṭīn, lqāʕ (more ground) ɑrt ɑrd, torba (also grave), ratš (stony soil), torɑ̄b (more dust) wɑṭɑ, ɑrḍ, turɑ̄b ard, turāb trɑ̄b arəḍ ărð̣, ṭīn (also clay), ătrāb (more sand) art, ħamrija

IX[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
160 cloud saħāba, ġamāma, ġɑym (more rain cloud) saħāb, ġēm (usu. rain clouds) ġeimi ġìema ġīm saħāb, ġamām ġēm, natal (more rain cloud) ˁayára saħāba, ġēma (more rain cloud) ġēm, ġamām sahābāy sħāb sħaba, ġmama (more rain cloud) məzan sħaba
161 fog ḍɑbāb ṭɑḷḷ, ð̣ɑbɑ̄b ġṭayṭɑ, ḍɑbɑ̄b ð̣uḅɑ̄ḅ ð̣bāb ð̣ɑbāb, ħiğāb ġɑllēt, ð̣bāb šɑbbūrɑ, ḍɑbɑ̄bɑ ḍɑbɑ̄b xamām, dubāb ḍbāb ḍbab (l)ġmām ċpar
162 sky samāʔ sama samɑ, žow (more weather) sema, denyɑ (more atmosphere) sama samēʔ smā sama sama, denya (more world) sama sama smā smɑ səmāʔ sema
163 wind
(as in breeze)
rīħ, hawāʔ (air) hbūb, rīħ (wind gust), šɑmɑ̄l (northerly), šɑ̄mi (from the northwest), tɑ̄res (strong) hɑwɑ hɑwɑ, nesīm (more breeze) ġīħ rīħ, hawa habu xava hawa rīħ rīh rīḥ riħ rīħ riħ
164 snow θalj θalj talž, žlīd θalej θalij θalğ talg telj talj θilž təlž ădgīg ăglāṣ borra
165 ice jalīd, θalj (more snow) θalj talž θalej θalij, jălīd, māy jīməd θalğ falg talg telj, jamad jamad, alme jamad θilž təlž ăglāṣ silġ
166 smoke duxxān dexxɑ̄n doxxān duxxɑ̄n dixxān duxxān duxxān, duxxīn, ħaylūq tixxán doxxān duxxān duxxān duxxān duxxan dəxxān duħħan
167 fire nār, ħarīq (blaze) ð̣ɑẉ (also light), ħarīja (blaze), nɑ̄r nɑ̄r, ħarīʔ (blaze) ṇār, ħarīq, ħarīg (blaze) nɑ̄ġ nār, ħarīg (blaze) nār, ħarīq (blaze), sargīga (large), mahgīga, madhīra (very large) okít nɑ̄r, ħarīˀa (blaze) nɑ̄r nār nɑ̄r ʕafyɑ, ħriqɑ (blaze) nɑ̄r nar
168 ash rɑmād rmɑ̄d rimēd rṃɑ̄d ġɑmɑ̄d rɑmād rīd rmat rɑmɑ̄d ṛɑmɑ̄ḍ rumād rmād rmɑḍ ărmɑ̄d rmied
169 to burn
(intransitive)
šaʕala, ħarɑqa ħarag ħɑrɑʔ čuwɑ, ħ(t)erag, šeʕal ħaġăq ħarag, dazz ħrāq, šaħšaħ xɑrɑk ħaraˀ ħarag harag ħraq ħrəq ħrăg, ħma ħaraq
170 road ṭɑrīq, darb (more path) darb, ṭɑrīg tɑrīʔ, darb dareb ṭrīq, daġib darb ṭɑrīq tɑrp, trīk sekka, tɑrīˀ (more way) ṭɑrīg, sikka dirib, tarīg (more way) ṭriq, kayyās ṭriq, karrətēra ăṭrīg, rɑ̄mplé (dirt road) triq
171 mountain jabal yebal žabal jebal jabal ğabal, ṣabir ʕaqaba, gabīl žipel gabal jabal (ras) hajar žbal žbal kedya, žăbal muntanja, għolja
172 red ʔaħmɑr ħɑmɑṛ ʔɑħmɑr ʔɑħmɑr, damawi ăħmɑġ ʔaħmɑr ħmār, xumrī (deep) ɑxmɑr ɑħmɑr aħmɑr ah(a)mar ˀaħmar ħmər ăħmɑr aħmar
173 green ʔaxḍɑr xɑð̣ɑṛ ʔɑxḍɑr ʔɑxð̣ɑr ăxð̣ɑġ ʔaxð̣ɑr xðɑ̄r prásino, xoðer ɑġdɑr gɑrɑmɑ̄nī, ɑxḍɑr (dark green to dark grey) ˀaxadar ˀaxḍir xḍər ăxð̣ɑr neʕnāʕ aħdar
174 yellow ʔaṣfar ɑṣfɑr ʔɑsfɑr ʔɑṣfɑr ăṣfɑġ ʔaṣfɑr ħɑnṭī, ṣfɑ̄r sítrino, asfar ɑsfɑr asfɑr ˀasfar ˀaṣfir ṣfər ăṣfɑr isfar
175 white ʔabyɑḍ ɑbyɑð̣ ʔɑbyɑḍ ʔɑbyɑð̣, šakari (creamy) ăbyɑð̣ ʔabyɑð̣ byɑ̄ð̣ ápkyað ɑbyɑd ɑbyɑḍ ˀabyet ˀabyiḍ byəḍ ăbyɑð̣ abjad
176 black ʔaswad aswad, ʔabrag (usu. for animals, black and blue) ʔɑswɑd ʔaswad, hendes (pitch black) ăswad ʔaswad swād ísvet eswed azrag, aswɑd (more pitch black) ˀazrag ˀakħil kħɘl ăkħal iswed
177 night layla lēl layl lìel lĭl leylih lēl layl lēla lēla llēl līl lil (l)layl lejl
178 day
(daytime)
yawm, nahār (daytime) yōṃ yawm yōṃ nəhɑ̄ġ yawm yōm xar yōm, nɑhɑ̄r (daytime) yōm, nɑhɑ̄r (daytime) yōm nhār nhɑr ănhār jum, ġurnata, nhar (daytime)
179 year ʕām, sana (year of drought) sana seni sana sani sanah sana, ʕām sine sana sana, ʕām, ħōl sana ˁām ʕam ʕām sena

X[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
180 warm
(as in weather)
dāfiʔ dɑ̄fi defyēn (bodies), soxn (food) ħɑ̄mi, dɑ̄fi dīfi dāfi, ħāmi (more hot) xɑrr, sxun dāfi dāfi hāmi dāfi, sxūn (more hot) dafi ħāmi, dāfi (more lukewarm) sħun
181 cold
(as in weather)
bārid bɑ̄ṛed (objects), baṛdɑ̄n (people) bēred (objects), bardēn (people) bɑ̄ṛed ṣqīʕ bārid (objects), bardān (people) bārid, karaʕ peret sāˀeˁ (usu. objects), saˀˁān, bardān (people) bārid bārid bārid bared bārəd kiesaħ, biered
182 full malān, mumtaliʔ, kāmil matrūs, mamzūr metlēn, mʕabbē matrūs, mqɑppaṭ kāməl malyān, matrūs, kāmil mʕabbī, matrūs mplan malyān malyɑ̄n melān mˁebbi ʕamər mlān mimli
183 new jadīd yadīd ždīd jedīd jdīd ğadīd gadīd žtīt gedīd jadīd jedīd ždīd ždid ăždīd ġdid
184 old qɑdīm, ʕatīq (ancient), šayb (old age), šayx (old age), ʕajūz (unable; by ext. elderly) qɑdīm, kabīṛ (people), ʕōd (usu. big but also old; objects & people) ʔadīm (objects), xetyɑ̄r, šeyb (people, more attributive noun), ʕatīʔ (more ancient) ʕatīg, qɑdīm, šāyeb (only people) qădīm, ʕătīq, šīb (only people) gadīm, kabīr (more big), ʕağūz (people) qɑdīm (objects), dawīl (objects, people), šēb (people, abstract), dāθir (ancient) ˁɑtīk ˀadīm (objects), ˁagūz (people) gadīm (objects), ʕaṭīg (ancient), ʕajūz (people) gedīm, šēb (people) qdīm (objects), kbīr (people) qdim, kbir (people) kahal, əkbīr (only people) xiħ (people), qadim (objects), antik (objects)
185 good jayyid, ħasan, ṭɑyyib (more well) zēn, xōš mnīħ, ṭɑyyeb (more well) zíen, xōš mlīħ, xōš nāhi, kwayyis, ʕīs (very good) zēn, ħašama kaes, taep k(u)wayyes, ħelʷ (more sweet, beautiful) samiħ, kuwayyis, šadīd (more well) sēme, zēn bāhi mɘzyan, ḍrif zayn, măʕlūm tajjeb
186 bad sayyiʔ šēn ʕɑ̄ṭel mu zíen, čuruk mâ mlīħ, čirik, mâ xōš šūʕ, bɑṭṭɑ̄l xɑ̄yis, bɑ̄ṭil vešex waħeš bɑṭṭɑ̄l, waħiš hawān, mā sēme xāyib, dūni xayb, qbiħ māhu zayn, šayn, rāx, mmăhli (more for people), ffɑnṭi (also noun) ħażin
187 rotten
(as a log)
fāsid, ʕafn (putrid), musawwas (decayed) xɑ̄yes, maħawħaw mɑnzūʕ, msowwes (wood) xɑ̄yes məxănbaq, xăyyiṣ xɑ̄yis, mnattin, sawwas (wood) dhent, zaham ˁefen meˁaffen maxawrɑn, ʕafen ˀafin xāmiž xaməž, msuwwəs (wood) mŭxnəž immuffat, mħassar
188 dirty wasix, najas (unclean) waṣəx wesex (dirt), mižwē (unclean regardless of material) waṣix, nages, zafer wiṣix wasix, ṭeṣel ħatak, šaxal măˁaθθi wesex wasxān, wasix wasix mmassix mmʷssəx ămsəx maħmuġ
189 straight mustaqīm, ʕala ṭūl (more straight away) sīdɑ doġri ʕadel, guḅɑḷ ṭăwlāni, ʕadil sāni sīdɑ, (ʕala) ṭūl iša ˁedel, ˁɑlɑṭūl (also straight away) ʕadīl, ṭɑwwɑ̄lī ˀadīl ṭūl mʕewweṭ, nišan ămsaggam dritt
190 round mustadīr mdawwɑr mdowwer mdawwar, mdaʕbal (ə)mdawwiġ mdawwɑr, mukawwɑr strondžilí medɑwwɑr muḍawwɑr, mudardam mudawwar, girgīt (more stout) mdawwir mḍuwwər mzăgnən tond
191 sharp
(as a knife)
ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħāmi ħādd tarīn, mutarrag mɑ̄ḍi mɑḍi ħād, ămtīn (also severe) qawwi, penetranti
192 dull
(as a knife)
kalīl, muθlim aʕma mtallam, mišħadde ˀaʕmi məθlūm bāred, telem mayyit kalla, mayyit ħāfi ħafi dāfər, dəkăm ċatt, matt, spuntat
193 smooth ʔamlas, nāʕem ʔamlas nēʕem, meles nāʕem, amlas ămlas, nīʕim tāsi, rāxī (also thin) sabṭ nāˁem amlas, mārin mārin ˀarṭib mləs, rṭəb ămlas mieles, lixx
194 wet rɑṭb, muballal mablūl, rɑṭəb (more humid) mbɑllɑl nɑ̄geʕ, mballal (ə)mnɑqqɑʕ ɑxð̣ɑr, mablūl xð̣ɑr, rɑṭb maplúl mablūl mablūl layyen, mablūl mablūl fazəg măblūl mxarrab
195 dry
(adjective)
jāff, yābis ħāff, nɑ̄šef nēšef yɑ̄bis, nɑ̄šef nīšif yābis, nāšif yābis yepes nāšef yābis, nɑ̄šif yābis šāyɑħ yabəs yābəs niexef, xott
196 right
(correct)
ṣɑħīħ, tamāma(n) (more completely), ṣɑ̄ˀib, mɑḍbūṭ (also exactly), ħaqqɑ(n) (also truthfully), ʕādil (also even, just(ly)) ʕadel, ṣɑħīħ mɑẓbūt, tamēm, sɑħ(ī)ħ ṣɑ̄yeb, ṣɑħħ ṣɑħīħ ṣɑħ(ī)ħ ħaqq, ṣɑħħ ṣɑħħ, mɑẓbūt ʕadil, ṣɑħ(ī)ħ sehī, ˀadīl ṣħīħ ṣħiħ, hadak (m), hadik (f) ṣħīħ, ṣɑ̄ləħ tajjeb, sewwa
197 near qɑrīb, bi-qurb gaṛīb, dūni, yamm (more beside) ʔarīb, ħadd (more beside) qɑṛīb, yamm (more beside) qăġīb, yămm (more beside) garīb, ğamb qurb, qɑrīb žump ˀorɑyyeb (men), gamb (more beside) garīb garīb qrīb, ħðē qrib, ħdɑ (more beside) grăyyəb, ħða (more beside) qrib, ħdejn
198 far baʕīd baʕīd beʕīd bʕīd bʕīd biʕīd baʕūd, natara pĕˁīt beˁīd baʕīd, ġɑ̄di (very far) beˀīd bˁīd bʕid băʕīd bgħid
199 right
(side)
yamīn yemīn yemīn ʔayman (m), yimna (f) ˀ(i)ymīn yimān yamīn yemīn yamīn (ˀīdak) azzenāy līmīn əmin (eĭd) lʕarbi lemin

XI[edit]

English Arabic (MSA) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (South/Baghdad) Moslawi (North/Mosul) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Western/Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
200 left
(side)
yasār, šimāl (also north) yesɑ̄r šmēl ʔaysɑr (m), yisra (f) yăṣɑ̄ġ yɑsɑ̄r, šimāl šɑdɑf, yɑsɑ̄r zărvá šemāl šimɑ̄l (ˀīdak) alˀisrāy līsār šmel, əṣri (eĭd) lʕasri xellug
201 at bi, ʕind, ʔilā (more towards) ʕend ʕind, eb, bi ʕe(n)d, eb- ʕidd ʕind, fī ʕind ˁint ˁand ʕind fī (place), fōg (people) ˁand ʕənd ʕand għand, fi, sa
202 in fī, bi fi be, eb, fi (fig. only) əb- əb- wɑṣṭ, fī fi fe fi fi vī, və fi, ġo, ġewwa
203 with
(accompanying)
maʕ, bi wiyya, b- mɑʕɑ, bi, wiyye (only accompanying; somewhat adverbial) wiyyɑ, eb- mɑʕɑ miʕ maʕ, bi maˁ- maˁa, be, wayya (poetic) maʕa, bi maˀa, be mˁā mʕa mʕa, bə ma', miegħ-
204 and wa w-, wɑ u we, w- u, w- wa, w- wa u wo, w- wa, u wa ū u- wə, u u
205 if ʔið(ā), law (conditional), ʔin (conditional) lo, iðɑ, (ən)čɑ̄n eza, law, enkēn lō, eðɑ̄ ăðā lɑ̄, ʔiðɑ̄ iðā, lō, bā (conditional) an, kan law, en (conditional) in, lɑw (conditional) kān ˀīðā ilɑ ilā, iða jekk
206 because liʔanna, kayy, min ajali (in order that), ʕala šaʔn (as a consequence), bisababi (with that reason) lenn, ˀaʕšɑ̄n, lajel (on account of, so as to) lɑʔɑnno, ʕašēn (more for), kermēl (on account of, so as to) ʕalamōd, číef ămbūr, bəjġān (more Christian) ʕa(la)sibb, min mayd (on account of) ʕašān ta, ðyotī ˁa(la)šān ˀaʕšɑ̄n fīšān ˁlā xāṭer ħit, ʕla ħqqaš (on account of), ʕla qbal (on account of) bī(həlli) għax
207 name ʔism ˀasem ˀesem esm isim ˀism ism ism esm ism, sammu ˀus(u)m ˀism səm, smiyyɑ ʔism isem

See also[edit]

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic:  Standard ArabicEgyptianPalestinianTunisianCypriot – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Basque:  Proto-Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese:  MandarinCantoneseGanMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongOld Chinese – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian – English:  OldMiddle – Elamite – Estonian – Etruscan – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – FrenchOld French – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek:  Modern GreekAncient Greek – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian – Japanese – Proto-Japanese – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – LatinVulgar Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Neapolitan – Norwegian:  BokmålNynorsk – Ojibwe – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – PortugueseOld Portuguese – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sicilian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tigrinya – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Austro-Asiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Sino-Tibetan:  Tibeto-Burman – Tibeto-Burman (Nepal) – Kho-Bwa – Kuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan – South American – Tai–Kadai – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Slavic