Appendix:Zealandic Swadesh list

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This is a Swadesh list of words in Zealandic, compared with that of English.

Presentation[edit]

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List[edit]

No. English Zealandic
Zeêuws
IPA
pronunciation
1 I ik /ɪk/
2 you (singular) jie /ji/
3 he 'ie, 'n /i/, /ən/
4 we oôns, wulder /ɔ̃ˑ(n)s/, /ˈʋʏldər/
5 you (plural) julder /ˈjʏldər/
6 they 'ulder, ze /ˈʏldər/, /zə/
7 this deze(n) m, deze f, dit n /ˈdeɪzə(n)/, /ˈdeɪzə/, /dɪt/
8 that die(n) m, die f, dat n /diˑ(n)/, /diˑ/, /dɑt/
9 here 'ier /iˑr/
10 there daer /dɛˑr/
11 who wie(n) /ʋi(n)/
12 what wat /ʋɑt/
13 where waer /ʋɛˑr/
14 when 'oeneer /uˈneˑr/
15 how 'oe /u/
16 not nie /ni/
17 all aolles /ˈɒləs/
18 many vee /feɪ/
19 some sommige, 'n bitje /ˈsɔməɦə/, /ən ˈbɪçə/
20 few weinig /ˈwæinəɧ/
21 other ander, aor /ˈɑndər/, /ˈɑˑr/
22 one eên /ɪˑən/
23 two tweê /tʋɪˑə/
24 three drie /dri/
25 four vier /viˑr/
26 five vuuf /vyf/
27 big groôt /ɦroˑt/
28 long lank /lɑŋ/
29 wide breêd /brɪˑət/
30 thick dik /dɪk/
31 heavy zwaer /zʋɛˑr/
32 small klein /klæin/
33 short kort /kɔrt/
34 narrow smaol /smɒˑl/
35 thin dun /dɜn/
36 woman vrouwe, wuuf /ˈvrɑuə/, /ʋyf/
37 man (male) man, vent /mɑn/, /væ̃ˑnt/
38 man (human) mense /ˈmæ̃ˑnsə/
39 child kind /kĩˑnt/
40 wife vrouwe, wuuf /ˈvrɑuə/, /ʋyf/
41 husband man, vent /mɑn/, /væ̃ˑnt/
42 mother moeder, moer /ˈmudər/, /muˑr/
43 father vaoder, vaer /ˈvɑˑdər/, /vɛˑr/
44 animal beêste /ˈbɪˑəstə/
45 fish vis /vɪs/
46 bird veugel /ˈvøɦəl/
47 dog 'ond /ɔnt/
48 louse luus /lys/
49 snake slange /ˈslɑŋə/
50 worm wurm /ˈʋœrəm/
51 tree boôm /boəm/
52 forest bos /bɔs/
53 stick stok /stɔk/
54 fruit vrucht /vrɜxt/
55 seed zaed /zɛˑt/
56 leaf blad /blɑt/
57 root wortel /ˈʋɔrtəl/
58 bark (of a tree) schosse /ˈsxɔsə/
59 flower blomme /ˈblomə/
60 grass gos /ɦɔs/
61 rope touwe /tɑu/
62 skin vel, 'uud /væl/, /yt/
63 meat vleis, vleês /vlæis/, /vlɪˑəs/
64 blood bloed /blut/
65 bone beên /bɪˑən/
66 fat (noun) vet, smout /væt/
67 egg ei /æi/
68 horn 'oôrn /oˑr(ə)n/
69 tail staert /stɛ(r)t/
70 feather plume /ˈplymə/
71 hair 'aer /ɛˑr/
72 head 'oôd /oˑət/
73 ear oôre /ˈoˑərə/
74 eye oôge /ˈoˑəɦə/
75 nose neuze /nøˑzə/
76 mouth mond /mɔnt/
77 tooth tand /tɑnt/
78 tongue tonge /ˈtɔŋə/
79 fingernail naegel /ˈnɛˑɦəl/
80 foot voet /vut/
81 leg beên /bɪˑən/
82 knee knie /kniˑ/
83 hand 'and /ɑnt/
84 wing vleugel /ˈvløɦəl/
85 belly buuk, poke /byk/, /ˈpoukə/
86 guts dermen /ˈdærmən/
87 neck 'als, nikke /ɒls/, /ˈnɪkə/
88 back rik, rugge /rɪk/, /ˈrɜɦə/
89 breast bost /bɔst/
90 heart 'arte /ˈɑ(r)tə/
91 liver lever /ˈleɪvər/
92 to drink drienke /ˈdrinkə/
93 to eat ete /ˈeɪtə/
94 to bite biete /ˈbitə/
95 to suck zuge /ˈzyɦə/
96 to spit spieë, spoege /ˈspiːə/, /ˈspuɦə/
97 to vomit spieë, spoege /ˈspiːə/, /ˈspuɦə/
98 to blow blaeze /ˈblɛˑzə/
99 to breathe aeseme /ˈɛˑsəmə/
100 to laugh lache /ˈlɑxə/
101 to see zieë /ˈziːə/
102 to hear 'ore /ˈoːrə/
103 to know weête (a fact), kenne (a person) /ˈʋɪˑətə/, /ˈkænə/
104 to think dienke /ˈdiŋkə/
105 to smell ruke (sense), stienke (to stink) /ˈrykə/, /ˈstiŋkə/
106 to fear vreze, benaeuwd weze vo /ˈvrezə/
107 to sleep slaepe, meure /ˈslɛˑpə/, /ˈmøˑrə/
108 to live leve /ˈleɪvə/
109 to die sterve /ˈstærəvə/
110 to kill doôddoeë /ˈdoˑəduːə/
111 to fight vechte /ˈvæxtə/
112 to hunt jaege /ˈjɛˑɧə/
113 to hit slae /slɛˑ/
114 to cut snieë /ˈsniə/
115 to split spliete /ˈsplitə/
116 to stab steke /ˈsteɪkə/
117 to scratch kraeuwe /ˈkrɛˑ‿uə/
118 to dig graeve /ˈɧrɛˑvə/
119 to swim zwemme /ˈzwæmə/
120 to fly vliege /ˈvli(ˑ)ɧə/
121 to walk loôpe /ˈloˑəpə/
122 to come komme /ˈkɔmə/
123 to lie (as in a bed) leie, ligge /ˈlæiə/, /ˈlɪɧə/
124 to sit zitte /ˈzɪtə/
125 to stand stae /stɛˑ/
126 to turn (intransitive) draoie /ˈdrɑˑjə/
127 to fall vaolle /ˈvɒlə/
128 to give geve /ˈɦeɪvə/
129 to hold 'ouwe, vast'ouwe /ˈɑuwə/
130 to squeeze kniepe /ˈknipə/
131 to rub vrieve /ˈvrivə/
132 to wash wasse /ˈʋɑsə/
133 to wipe vege /ˈveɪɦə/
134 to pull trekke /ˈtrækə/
135 to push douwe /ˈdɑuwə/
136 to throw goôie, smiete /ˈɧoˑjə/, /ˈsmitə/
137 to tie knoôpe /ˈknoˑəpə/
138 to sew naoie /ˈnɑˑiə/
139 to count telle /ˈtælə/
140 to say zeie, zegge /ˈzæijə/, /ˈzæɦə/
141 to sing zienge /ˈziŋə/
142 to play spele, speule /ˈspeɪlə/, /ˈspø.lə/
143 to float drieve /ˈdrivə/
144 to flow stroôme /ˈstroˑəmə/
145 to freeze bevrieze /bəˈvri(ˑ)zə/
146 to swell opzwelle /ˈopˌzʋælə/
147 sun zunne /ˈzʏnə/
148 moon maene /ˈmɛˑnə/
149 star sterre /ˈstærə/
150 water waeter /ˈʋɛˑtər/
151 rain rege /ˈreɪɦə/
152 river rivier /riˈviˑr/
153 lake meêr /mɪˑər/
154 sea zeê /zɪˑə/
155 salt zout /zɑut/
156 stone steên /stɪˑən/
157 sand zand /zɑnt/
158 dust stof /stɔf/
159 earth aerde /ˈɛˑ(r)də/
160 cloud wolk /ˈʋɔlək/
161 fog mist /mɪst/
162 sky 'emel /ˈeɪməl/
163 wind wind /ʋĩˑnt/
164 snow sneêuw, sneê /snɪˑu/, /snɪˑə/
165 ice ies /is/
166 smoke roôk /roˑək/
167 fire vier /viˑr/
168 ash asse /ˈɑsə/
169 to burn brande /ˈbrɑndə/
170 road wegt /ʋæxt/
171 mountain berg /ˈbærəx/
172 red roôd /roˑət/
173 green groen /ɦrun/
174 yellow geel /ɦɪˑəl/
175 white wit /ʋɪt/
176 black zwart /zʋɑ(r)t/
177 night nacht /nɑxt/
178 day dag /dɑx/
179 year jaer /jɛˑr/
180 warm waerm /ˈʋæˑrəm/
181 cold koud /kɑut/
182 full vol /vɔl/
183 new nieuw /niu/
184 old oud /ɑut/
185 good goed /ɦut/
186 bad slecht /slæxt/
187 rotten rot, verrot /rɔt/, /vəˈrɔt/
188 dirty vuul /vyl/
189 straight recht /ræxt/
190 round rond /rɔnt/
191 sharp (as a knife) scherp /sxærp/
192 dull (as a knife) bot /bɔt/
193 smooth glad /ɦlɑt/
194 wet nat /nɑt/
195 dry droôg /droˑəx/
196 correct juust, sjuust, goed /jyst/, /ɦut/
197 near kortbie /kɔɾˈbi/
198 far verre /ˈværə/
199 right rechts /ræxs/
200 left lienks /liŋks/
201 at bie /bi/
202 in in /ɪn/
203 with mee, mie /meɪ/
204 and en, in /æn/, /ɪn/
205 if a, as /ɑ/, /ɑs/
206 because om'a /ɔmˈɑ/
207 name naem /nɛˑm/
Notes
  • The orthography used is based on the Schwiefwieze(r) developed by Marco Evenhuis. Other spelling systems exist, notably that of the Woordenboek der Zeeuwse dialecten. In lemmas, they will be given as alternative spellings.
  • There is no such thing as standard Zealandic. Words can vary between dialects. This list was based mostly on Walchers. Different forms have only been mentioned when these differences stretch beyond regular sound shifts. The word waeter corresponds to Bevelands wàeter or witter, but these forms abide to simple sound laws and have not been taken up. They can be mentioned in entries as alternative forms. Forms used in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen have not been considered since these dialects deviate greatly from insular Zealandic, but they will also be taken into account in individual entries.
  • Pronunciation differs considerably between dialects. The IPA transcription is roughly based on Walchers. The most notable differences include:
    • <'> in words has no phonetic or phonemic value. It represents an h that has disappeared and is used mostly as a reading aid. In Goerees and Flakkees, [ɦ] was preserved: ’ond corresponds to hond.
    • The sound transcribed as /ɦ/ corresponds with Dutch g and has many possible realisations. In Goerees and Flakkees; which preserve the original h, the sound remains fully articulated ([ɣ], [x]); in many other areas it is not entirely debuccalized (this varies even between individual speakers). Likewise, the sound transcribed as /x/ here can go the way of [h].
    • <ae>, corresponding to many instances of Dutch aa [a:], is closed further on Zuid-Beveland where it becomes [ɪˑ], and often shortened to [ɪ] in the south of Zuid-Beveland. See example of waeter/waèter/witter above. In Middelburg and Vlissingen, they become ao, as they do in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen.
    • <eê> and <oô> have many possible realizations. They can be realised as monophthongs ([ɪˑ, ɔˑ]) or be widened ([iɐ, uɐ]). Some dialects have a three-way distinction between oo, oa and , while in a few others oo and have become allophones.
    • <w> is mostly labiodental [ʋ], as in standard Dutch from the Netherlands, but can also be bilabial [w] as in Belgian Dutch. This is most widespread in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen but also occurs on Walcheren.
    • Short <e> is always more open than in standard Dutch. It is transcribed here as /æ/ but can indeed be lowered to [a].
    • Zealandic prosody is more syllabic than standard Dutch. For that reason, long vowels have mostly been transcribed as half-long. Vowel length remains phonemic in all dialects, however.
Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic, Egyptian, Palestinian, Tunisian, Cypriot) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon, Zeelandic) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin