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English citations of diaphoneme
- 1980, Shlomo Noble (translator), Joshua Aaron Fishman (assistant translator), Max Weinrich (author), Paul Glasser (editor), History of the Yiddish Language, volume II, reprinted by Yale University Press in coöperation with the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research (2008), ISBN 9780300109597, chapter 7: “The Linguistic Determinants”, pages –468:
- On the other hand, of the long vowels only /iː/ remained the same; for example, in gisn (pour; Early Vowel I₂) (cf. MHG gieȥen) it must be borne in mind that length ceased in the isochronic areas. The /u/ in zukhn (seek), historically long (Early Vowel U₂) (cf. MHG suochen), has a parallel articulation /iː/ today in large parts of Yiddish. The long /a e o/ have gone through even greater metamorphoses. The series with the long a as a point of departure, for example in bloter (blister; Early Vowel A₂) (cf. MHG blâter), today has the diaphoneme /o‖u/, and to be exhaustive the diaphoneme should be rendered /o‖u‖au‖oi/, for in western Yiddish there are also the articulations /šlaufn/ and /šloifn/ (sleep). From the point of departure of long e (Early Vowel E₂) Yiddish arrived at the diaphoneme /ei‖ai/, for example in veynik (little) (cf. MHG wênic). In groys (big; Early Vowel O₂) (cf. MHG groȥ), Yiddish has the diaphoneme /ei‖oi/; with the variant of Samogitia–Latvia (7.35), the symbolization will become still more complicated: /ei‖øu‖oi‖ou/.