Module:languages/data2

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This module contains definitions and metadata for two-letter language codes. See Wiktionary:Languages for more information.

This module must not be used directly in other modules or templates. The data should be accessed through Module:languages.

Required values

Every entry in the table must contain the following indexed fields:

1
The "canonical" name of the language. This is the name that is used in Wiktionary entries and category names.
2
The Wikidata item id (Q number) for the language. This replaces the older wikipedia_article property. Set to nil if not known/present.

Optional values

3
The code for the family that the language belongs to. See Wiktionary:Families.

The properties entry_name and sort_key are used for text substitution; they replace or remove certain characters or sets of characters. They both work similarly, and are optional. They can both be tables, and sort_key can be the name of a module that takes an entry name and generates a sortkey (which is used to sort the entry on category pages).

if sort_key is the name of a module, the module must contain a sortkey-generating function that is named makeSortKey. This function must take the arguments text, lang, sc, where text is the page name (or other text in the language), lang is the language code (not the language object), and sc is the script code (not the script object). The returned value should always be a string, or there will be a module error in the Language:makeSortKey() function.

If either one is a table, it must contain two tables inside it: one named from and one named to. These two tables are organised pairwise: each element in from is a pattern to identify which characters in the term to replace, while the corresponding element in to defines what to replace them with.

If the replacement is not present or if it is false or nil, it defaults to an empty replacement, meaning that the matching characters are removed altogether. This means that the from list can be longer than the to list, and an empty replacement will be assumed for any elements in from that have no counterpart in to.

The tables can contain literal characters, or the patterns (a type of regular expressions) that are used by the standard Scribunto mw.ustring.gsub function. See the Scribunto reference manual for more information.

At the top of the module, there is a list of combining characters with names. These are provided for convenience and readability, as combining characters generally do not display properly inside the module code (although they do not affect the actual operation of the module).

entry_name
Defines replacements to create the entry name from the displayed form of a term. This can be used to remove certain diacritical marks according to the customs or standard practice of the language. For example, it is used to remove accent marks from Russian words (ру́сскийрусский), or macrons from Latin or Old English words (ōsos), as these are not used in the normal written form of these languages. This is used by makeEntryName in Module:languages.
sort_key
Defines replacements to create a category sort key from the page name. The purpose is to remove any characters that are ignored in sorting, and to replace similar characters with identical ones if the sorting rules for that language do not distinguish them. For example, in German, the characters "ä" and "a" are considered equivalent for sorting, and are both treated as "a". The page name is converted to lowercase before applying the replacements, so you should not add uppercase letters to the "from" lists. This is used by makeSortKey in Module:languages.

These are other optional values:

otherNames
A table of all the names that this language is known by, other than the canonical name. The list should include not only synonyms for the language, but also names that refer to language varieties that are subsumed under the same grouping. For example, while "Flemish" is not synonymous with "Dutch", Flemish is considered a part of Dutch, so the name is listed there.
type
The type of language (which affects how it is handled on Wiktionary). Possible values are:
  • regular - This value is the default, so it doesn't need to be specified. It indicates that the is attested according to WT:CFI and therefore permitted in the main namespace. There may also be reconstructed terms for the language, which are placed in the Reconstruction namespace and must be prefixed with * to indicate a reconstruction.
  • reconstructed - This language is not attested according to CFI, and therefore is allowed only in the Reconstruction namespace. All terms in this language are reconstructed, and must be prefixed with *.
  • appendix-constructed - This language is attested but does not meet the additional requirements set out for constructed languages (WT:CFI#Constructed languages). Its entries must therefore be in the Appendix namespace, but they are not reconstructed and therefore should not have * prefixed in links.
scripts
A list of script codes, see Wiktionary:Scripts. These represent all the scripts (writing systems) that this language uses in the real world, as well as the ones that Wiktionary uses. The scripts that are used most often on Wiktionary should be first in the list, as this will speed up script detection.
Many templates and modules detect the script of text in a particular language using the findBestScript function in Module:scripts. This function goes down the list of scripts and counts how many characters in the text belong to each script. If all the characters belong to one script, that script will be returned; otherwise, the script with the most characters will be returned. Thus, script detection will be faster if the most frequently used scripts are first in the list.
translit_module
The name of a module that is used to generate transliterations of terms, without the Module: prefix. This module must export a function named tr that is defined as follows:
tr(text, lang, sc)
The three parameters are the text to be transliterated, the language code, and the script code. The function can ignore the language and script codes, but they are provided for cases when a language has more than one script, or when a single function is used to transliterate multiple languages sharing the same script.
ancestors
A table listing the language codes of the direct ancestors of this language. For example, the ancestor of English is listed as enm (Middle English); ang (Old English, the ancestor of Middle English), gem-pro (Proto-Germanic, the ancestor of Old English), and ine-pro (Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor of Proto-Germanic) are not listed.
For most languages, only one ancestor code should be given, but multiple ancestors can be listed for pidgins, creoles and mixed languages.
The ancestor language table should not be included if the language's direct ancestor is the proto-language of the family to which the language belongs. In such a case, if the family code has been provided, Module:languages will automatically add the proto-language as the language's ancestor. For example, Proto-Germanic (gem-pro) belongs to the Indo-European (ine) family, and its direct ancestor is Proto-Indo-European (ine-pro). Because Proto-Indo-European is the proto-language of the Indo-European languages, Proto-Germanic does not need an ancestors table; Proto-Indo-European will be automatically returned as its ancestor by the getAncestors function.
wikimedia_codes
A table listing the Wikimedia language codes that this language maps to. This is used to translate Wiktionary codes to Wikimedia codes, which are usually the same but there are a few languages where it is different. The language codes must be valid Wikimedia codes (as determined by the wiki software), and if they are not defined in one of the language data modules, they must be defined in Module:wikimedia languages/data.
wikipedia_article
The name of the Wikipedia article for the language. Should normally only be supplied if the Wikidata id cannot be used.

local u = mw.ustring.char

-- UTF-8 encoded strings for some commonly-used diacritics
local GRAVE     = u(0x0300)
local ACUTE     = u(0x0301)
local CIRC      = u(0x0302)
local TILDE     = u(0x0303)
local MACRON    = u(0x0304)
local BREVE     = u(0x0306)
local DOTABOVE  = u(0x0307)
local DIAER     = u(0x0308)
local CARON     = u(0x030C)
local DGRAVE    = u(0x030F)
local INVBREVE  = u(0x0311)
local DOTBELOW  = u(0x0323)
local RINGBELOW = u(0x0325)
local CEDILLA   = u(0x0327)
local OGONEK    = u(0x0328)

-- Puncuation to be used for standardChars field
local PUNCTUATION = ' \!\#\$\%\&\*\+\,\-\.\/\:\;\<\=\>\?\@\^\_\`\|\~\'\(\)'

local Cyrl = {"Cyrl"}
local Latn = {"Latn"}

local m = {}

m["aa"] = {
	"Afar",
	"Q27811",
	"cus",
	otherNames = {"Qafar"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ab"] = {
	"Abkhaz",
	"Q5111",
	"cau-abz",
	otherNames = {"Abkhazian", "Abxazo"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Geor", "Latn"},
	translit_module = "ab-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["ae"] = {
	"Avestan",
	"Q29572",
	"ira-eas",
	otherNames = {"Zend", "Old Bactrian"},
	scripts = {"Avst", "Gujr"},
	translit_module = "Avst-translit",
	wikipedia_article = "Avestan",
}

m["af"] = {
	"Afrikaans",
	"Q14196",
	"gmw",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	ancestors = {"nl"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äáâà]", "[ëéêè]", "[ïíîì]", "[öóôò]", "[üúûù]", "[ÿýŷỳ]", "^-", "'"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	, "i"	, "o"	, "u"  , "y" }} ,
}

m["ak"] = {
	"Akan",
	"Q28026",
	"alv-kwa",
	otherNames = {"Twi-Fante", "Twi", "Fante", "Fanti", "Asante", "Akuapem"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["am"] = {
	"Amharic",
	"Q28244",
	"sem-eth",
	scripts = {"Ethi"},
	translit_module = "Ethi-translit",
}

m["an"] = {
	"Aragonese",
	"Q8765",
	"roa",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"roa-oan"},
}

m["ar"] = {
	"Arabic",
	"Q13955",
	"sem-arb",
	otherNames = {"Modern Standard Arabic", "Standard Arabic", "Literary Arabic", "Classical Arabic"},
	scripts = {"Arab", "Brai"},
	-- alif waṣl to alif, remove diacritics
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x0671), u(0x064B), u(0x064C), u(0x064D), u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652), u(0x0670), u(0x0640)},
		to   = {u(0x0627)}},
	translit_module = "ar-translit",
	standardChars = "ء-غف-ْٰٱ" .. PUNCTUATION .. "٠-٩،؛؟٫٬ـ",
}

m["as"] = {
	"Assamese",
	otherNames = {"Asamiya"},
	"Q29401",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"Beng"},
	ancestors = {"inc-mas"},
	translit_module = "as-translit",
}

m["av"] = {
	"Avar",
	"Q29561",
	"cau-nec",
	otherNames = {"Avaric"},
	scripts = Cyrl,
	ancestors = {"oav"},
	translit_module = "av-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["ay"] = {
	"Aymara",
	"Q4627",
	"sai-aym",
	otherNames = {"Southern Aymara", "Central Aymara"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["az"] = {
	"Azerbaijani",
	"Q9292",
	"trk-ogz",
	otherNames = {"Azeri", "Azari", "Azeri Turkic", "Azerbaijani Turkic", "North Azerbaijani", "South Azerbaijani", "Afshar", "Afshari", "Afshar Azerbaijani", "Afchar", "Qashqa'i", "Qashqai", "Kashkay", "Sonqor"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl", "fa-Arab"},
}

m["ba"] = {
	"Bashkir",
	"Q13389",
	"trk-kip",
	scripts = Cyrl,
	translit_module = "ba-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["be"] = {
	"Belarusian",
	"Q9091",
	"zle",
	otherNames = {"Belorussian", "Belarusan", "Bielorussian", "Byelorussian", "Belarussian", "White Russian"},
	scripts = Cyrl,
	ancestors = {"orv"},
	translit_module = "be-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"Ё", "ё"},
		to   = {"Е" , "е"}},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е"}},
}

m["bg"] = {
	"Bulgarian",
	"Q7918",
	"zls",
	scripts = {"Cyrl"},
	ancestors = {"cu"},
	translit_module = "bg-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", "Ѝ", "ѝ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е", "И", "и"}},
}

m["bh"] = {
	"Bihari",
	"Q135305",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"Deva"},
	ancestors = {"inc-mgd"},
}

m["bi"] = {
	"Bislama",
	"Q35452",
	"crp",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"en"},
}

m["bm"] = {
	"Bambara",
	"Q33243",
	"dmn",
	otherNames = {"Bamanankan"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["bn"] = {
	"Bengali",
	"Q9610",
	"inc",
	otherNames = {"Bangla"},
	scripts = {"Beng", "Newa"},
	ancestors = {"inc-mbn"},
	translit_module = "bn-translit",
}

m["bo"] = {
	"Tibetan",
	"Q34271",
	"tbq",
	otherNames = {"Ü", "Dbus", "Lhasa", "Lhasa Tibetan", "Amdo Tibetan", "Amdo", "Panang", "Khams", "Khams Tibetan", "Khamba", "Tseku", "Dolpo", "Humla", "Limi", "Lhomi", "Shing Saapa", "Mugom", "Mugu", "Nubri", "Walungge", "Gola", "Thudam", "Lowa", "Loke", "Mustang", "Tichurong"}, -- and "Gyalsumdo", "Lower Manang"? "Kyirong"?
	scripts = {"Tibt"}, -- sometimes Deva?
	ancestors = {"xct"},
	translit_module = "bo-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["br"] = {
	"Breton",
	"Q12107",
	"cel-bry",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"xbm"},
}

m["ca"] = {
	"Catalan",
	"Q7026",
	"roa",
	otherNames = {"Valencian"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"roa-oca"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"à", "[èé]", "[íï]", "[òó]", "[úü]", "ç", "l·l"},
		to   = {"a", "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "u"   , "c", "ll" }} ,
}

m["ce"] = {
	"Chechen",
	"Q33350",
	"cau-nkh",
	scripts = Cyrl,
	translit_module = "ce-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {MACRON},
		to   = {}},
}

m["ch"] = {
	"Chamorro",
	"Q33262",
	"poz-sus",
	otherNames = {"Chamoru"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["co"] = {
	"Corsican",
	"Q33111",
	"roa",
	otherNames = {"Corsu"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["cr"] = {
	"Cree",
	"Q33390",
	"alg",
	scripts = {"Cans", "Latn"},
	translit_module = "cr-translit",
}

m["cs"] = {
	"Czech",
	"Q9056",
	"zlw",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"zlw-ocs"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "[úů]", "ý"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"   , "y"}} ,
}

m["cu"] = {
	"Old Church Slavonic",
	"Q35499",
	"zls",
	otherNames = {"Old Church Slavic"},
	scripts = {"Cyrs", "Glag"},
	translit_module = "Cyrs-Glag-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x0484)}, -- kamora
		to   = {}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"оу", "є"},
		to   = {"у" , "е"}} ,
}

m["cv"] = {
	"Chuvash",
	"Q33348",
	"trk-ogr",
	scripts = Cyrl,
	translit_module = "cv-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["cy"] = {
	"Welsh",
	"Q9309",
	"cel-bry",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"wlm"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[âáàä]", "ch", "dd", "[êéèë]", "ff", "ngh", "[îíìï]", "ll", "[ôóòö]", "ph", "rh", "th", "[ûúùü]", "[ŵẃẁẅ]", "[ŷýỳÿ]", "'"},
		to   = {"a"	    , "c~", "d~", "e"	  , "f~", "g~h", "i"	  , "l~", "o"	  , "p~", "r~", "t~", "u"	  , "w"     , "y"	       }} ,
	standardChars = "A-IL-PR-UWYa-il-pr-uwy0-9ÂâÊêÎîÔôÛûŴŵŶŷ" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["da"] = {
	"Danish",
	"Q9035",
	"gmq",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"gmq-oda"},
}

m["de"] = {
	"German",
	"Q188",
	"gmw",
	otherNames = {"High German", "New High German", "Deutsch"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Latf"},
	ancestors = {"gmh"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äàáâå]", "[ëèéê]", "[ïìíî]", "[öòóô]", "[üùúû]", "ß" },
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "ss"}} ,
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9ÄäÖöÜüß" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["dv"] = {
	"Dhivehi",
	"Q32656",
	"inc",
	otherNames = {"Divehi", "Mahal", "Mahl", "Maldivian"},
	scripts = {"Thaa"},
	ancestors = {"pmh"},	-- or Helu?
	translit_module = "dv-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["dz"] = {
	"Dzongkha",
	"Q33081",
	"tbq",
	scripts = {"Tibt"},
	ancestors = {"xct"},
	translit_module = "bo-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["ee"] = {
	"Ewe",
	"Q30005",
	"alv-von",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["el"] = {
	"Greek",
	"Q9129",
	"grk",
	otherNames = {"Modern Greek", "Neo-Hellenic"},
	scripts = {"Grek", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"grc"},
	translit_module = "el-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	sort_key = {  -- Keep this synchronized with grc, cpg, pnt
		from = {"[ᾳάᾴὰᾲᾶᾷἀᾀἄᾄἂᾂἆᾆἁᾁἅᾅἃᾃἇᾇ]", "[έὲἐἔἒἑἕἓ]", "[ῃήῄὴῂῆῇἠᾐἤᾔἢᾒἦᾖἡᾑἥᾕἣᾓἧᾗ]", "[ίὶῖἰἴἲἶἱἵἳἷϊΐῒῗ]", "[όὸὀὄὂὁὅὃ]", "[ύὺῦὐὔὒὖὑὕὓὗϋΰῢῧ]", "[ῳώῴὼῲῶῷὠᾠὤᾤὢᾢὦᾦὡᾡὥᾥὣᾣὧᾧ]", "ῥ", "ς"},
		to   = {"α"						, "ε"		 , "η"						, "ι"				, "ο"		 , "υ"				, "ω"						, "ρ", "σ"}} ,
	standardChars = "ͺ;΄-ώϜϝ" .. PUNCTUATION .. "ἀ-῾",
}

m["en"] = {
	"English",
	"Q1860",
	"gmw",
	otherNames = {"Modern English", "New English", "Hawaiian Creole English", "Hawai'ian Creole English", "Hawaiian Creole", "Hawai'ian Creole", "Polari", "Yinglish"}, -- all but the first three are names of subsumed dialects which once had codes
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai", "Shaw", "Dsrt"}, -- entries in Shaw or Dsrt might require prior discussion
	ancestors = {"enm"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äàáâåā]", "[ëèéêē]", "[ïìíîī]", "[öòóôō]", "[üùúûū]", "æ" , "œ" , "[çč]", "ñ", "'"},
		to   = {"a"       , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "ae", "oe", "c"   , "n"}},
	wikimedia_codes = {"en", "simple"},
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9" .. PUNCTUATION .. u(0x2800) .. "-" .. u(0x28FF),
}

m["eo"] = {
	"Esperanto",
	"Q143",
	"art",
	scripts = Latn,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áà]", "[éè]", "[íì]", "[óò]", "[úù]", "[ĉ]", "[ĝ]", "[ĥ]", "[ĵ]", "[ŝ]", "[ŭ]"},
		to   = {"a"	   , "e"  , "i"  , "o"  , "u", "cĉ", "gĉ", "hĉ", "jĉ", "sĉ", "uĉ"}} ,
}

m["es"] = {
	"Spanish",
	"Q1321",
	"roa",
	otherNames = {"Castilian", "Amazonian Spanish", "Amazonic Spanish", "Loreto-Ucayali Spanish"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"osp"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "[úü]", "ç", "ñ"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"   , "c", "n"}},
	standardChars = "A-VXYZa-vxyz0-9ÁáÉéÍíÓóÚúÑñ¿¡" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["et"] = {
	"Estonian",
	"Q9072",
	"fiu-fin",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["eu"] = {
	"Basque",
	"Q8752",
	"euq",
	otherNames = {"Euskara"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["fa"] = {
	"Persian",
	"Q9168",
	"ira-wes",
	otherNames = {"Farsi", "New Persian", "Modern Persian", "Western Persian", "Iranian Persian", "Eastern Persian", "Dari", "Aimaq", "Aimak", "Aymaq", "Eimak"},
	scripts = {"fa-Arab"},
	ancestors = {"pal"}, -- "ira-mid"
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652)},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["ff"] = {
	"Fula",
	"Q33454",
	"alv-sng",
	otherNames = {"Adamawa Fulfulde", "Bagirmi Fulfulde", "Borgu Fulfulde", "Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde", "Fulani", "Fulfulde", "Maasina Fulfulde", "Nigerian Fulfulde", "Pular", "Pulaar", "Western Niger Fulfulde"}, -- Maasina, etc are dialects, subsumed into this code
	scripts = {"Latn", "Adlm"},
}

m["fi"] = {
	"Finnish",
	"Q1412",
	"fiu-fin",
	otherNames = {"Suomi", "Botnian"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ˣ"},  -- Used to indicate gemination of the next consonant
		to   = {}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áàâã]", "[éèêẽ]", "[íìîĩ]", "[óòôõ]", "[úùûũ]", "[ýỳŷüű]", "[øõő]", "æ" , "œ" , "[čç]", "š", "ž", "ß" , "[':]"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 ,  "y"	 , "ö"	, "ae", "oe", "c"   , "s", "z", "ss"}} ,
}

m["fj"] = {
	"Fijian",
	"Q33295",
	"poz-occ",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["fo"] = {
	"Faroese",
	"Q25258",
	"gmq",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"non"},
}

m["fr"] = {
	"French",
	"Q150",
	"roa-oil",
	otherNames = {"Modern French"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"frm"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áàâä]", "[éèêë]", "[íìîï]", "[óòôö]", "[úùûü]", "[ýỳŷÿ]", "ç", "æ" , "œ" , "'"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "y"	 , "c", "ae", "oe"}},
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9ÀÂÇÉÈÊËÎÏÔŒÛÙÜàâçéèêëîïôœûùü«»" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["fy"] = {
	"West Frisian",
	"Q27175",
	"gmw-fri",
	otherNames = {"Western Frisian", "Frisian"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"ofs"},
}

m["ga"] = {
	"Irish",
	"Q9142",
	"cel-gae",
	otherNames = {"Irish Gaelic"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"mga"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "ú", "ý", "ḃ" , "ċ" , "ḋ" , "ḟ" , "ġ" , "ṁ" , "ṗ" , "ṡ" , "ṫ" },
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u", "y", "bh", "ch", "dh", "fh", "gh", "mh", "ph", "sh", "th"}} ,
	standardChars = "A-IL-PR-Ua-il-pr-u0-9ÁáÉéÍíÓóÚú" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["gd"] = {
	"Scottish Gaelic",
	"Q9314",
	"cel-gae",
	otherNames = {"Gàidhlig", "Highland Gaelic", "Scots Gaelic", "Scottish"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"mga"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áà]", "[éè]", "[íì]", "[óò]", "[úù]", "[ýỳ]"},
		to   = {"a"   , "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "u"   , "y"   }} ,
	standardChars = "A-IL-PR-Ua-il-pr-u0-9ÀàÈèÌìÒòÙù" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["gl"] = {
	"Galician",
	"Q9307",
	"roa",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"roa-opt"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "ú"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u"}} ,
}

m["gn"] = {
	"Guaraní",
	"Q35876",
	"tup-gua",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["gu"] = {
	"Gujarati",
	"Q5137",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"Gujr"},
	ancestors = {"inc-mgu"},
	translit_module = "gu-translit",
}

m["gv"] = {
	"Manx",
	"Q12175",
	"cel-gae",
	otherNames = {"Manx Gaelic"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"mga"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ç", "-"},
		to   = {"c"}} ,
	standardChars = "A-WYÇa-wyç0-9" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["ha"] = {
	"Hausa",
	"Q56475",
	"cdc-wst",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
    sort_key = {
		from = {"ɓ",   "ɗ",   "ƙ",  "'y", "ƴ",  "'" },
		to   = {"b~" , "d~"	, "k~", "y~", "y~", ""  }},
    entry_name = {
		from = {"R̃", "r̃", "À", "à", "È", "è", "Ì", "ì", "Ò", "ò", "Ù", "ù", "Â", "â", "Ê", "ê", "Î", "î", "Ô", "ô", "Û", "û", "Ā", "ā", "Ē", "ē", "Ī", "ī", "Ō", "ō", "Ū", "ū", "Á", "á", "É", "é", "Í", "í", "Ó", "ó", "Ú", "ú", "Ā̀", "ā̀", "Ḕ", "ḕ", "Ī̀", "ī̀", "Ṑ", "ṑ", "Ū̀", "ū̀", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"R", "r", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u"}},
}

m["he"] = {
	"Hebrew",
	"Q9288",
	"sem-can",
	otherNames = {"Ivrit"},
	scripts = {"Hebr", "Phnx", "Brai"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[" .. u(0x0591) .. "-" .. u(0x05BD) .. u(0x05BF) .. "-" .. u(0x05C5) .. u(0x05C7) .. "]"},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["hi"] = {
	"Hindi",
	"Q1568",
	"inc",
	otherNames = {"Hindavi", "Khariboli", "Khari Boli", "Manak Hindi"},
	scripts = {"Deva", "Kthi", "Newa"},
	ancestors = {"inc-ohi"},
	translit_module = "hi-translit",
}

m["ho"] = {
	"Hiri Motu",
	"Q33617",
	"crp",
	otherNames = {"Pidgin Motu", "Police Motu"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"meu"},
}

m["ht"] = {
	"Haitian Creole",
	"Q33491",
	"crp",
	otherNames = {"Creole", "Haitian", "Kreyòl"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["hu"] = {
	"Hungarian",
	"Q9067",
	"urj-ugr",
	otherNames = {"Magyar"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hung"},
	ancestors = {"ohu"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á", "é", "í", "ó", "ú", "ő", "ű"},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u", "ö", "ü"}} ,
}

m["hy"] = {
	"Armenian",
	"Q8785",
	"hyx",
	otherNames = {"Modern Armenian", "Eastern Armenian", "Western Armenian"},
	scripts = {"Armn", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"axm"},
	translit_module = "Armn-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ու", "և", "եւ"},
		to   = {"ւ", "եվ", "եվ"}},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"՞", "՜", "՛", "՟", "և", "<sup>յ</sup>", "<sup>ի</sup>"},
		to   = {"", "", "", "", "եւ", "յ", "ի"}} ,
}

m["hz"] = {
	"Herero",
	"Q33315",
	"bnt",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ia"] = {
	"Interlingua",
	"Q35934",
	"art",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["id"] = {
	"Indonesian",
	"Q9240",
	"poz-mly",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"ms"},
}

m["ie"] = {
	"Interlingue",
	"Q35850",
	"art",
	otherNames = {"Occidental"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ig"] = {
	"Igbo",
	"Q33578",
	"nic-bco",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ii"] = {
	"Sichuan Yi",
	"Q34235",
	"tbq-lol",
	otherNames = {"Nuosu", "Nosu", "Northern Yi", "Liangshan Yi"},
	scripts = {"Yiii"},
	translit_module = "ii-translit",
}

m["ik"] = {
	"Inupiak",
	"Q27183",
	"esx-inu",
	otherNames = {"Inupiaq", "Iñupiaq", "Inupiatun"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["io"] = {
	"Ido",
	"Q35224",
	"art",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["is"] = {
	"Icelandic",
	"Q294",
	"gmq",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"non"},
}

m["it"] = {
	"Italian",
	"Q652",
	"roa",
	scripts = Latn,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[àáâäå]", "[èéêë]", "[ìíîï]", "[òóôö]", "[ùúûü]"},
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 }} ,
}

m["iu"] = {
	"Inuktitut",
	"Q29921",
	"esx-inu",
	otherNames = {"Eastern Canadian Inuktitut", "Eastern Canadian Inuit", "Western Canadian Inuktitut", "Western Canadian Inuit", "Western Canadian Inuktun", "Inuinnaq", "Inuinnaqtun", "Inuvialuk", "Inuvialuktun", "Nunavimmiutit", "Nunatsiavummiut", "Aivilimmiut", "Natsilingmiut", "Kivallirmiut", "Siglit", "Siglitun"},
	scripts = {"Cans", "Latn"},
	translit_module = "iu-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["ja"] = {
	"Japanese",
	"Q5287",
	"jpx",
	otherNames = {"Modern Japanese", "Nipponese", "Nihongo"},
	scripts = {"Jpan", "Latn", "Hira", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"ojp"},
	--[=[
	-- Handled by jsort function in [[Module:ja]].
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[ぁァア]", "[ぃィイ]", "[ぅゔゥウヴ]", "[ぇェエ]", "[ぉォオ]", "[がゕカガヵ]", "[ぎキギ]", "[ぐクグㇰ]", "[げゖケゲヶ]", "[ごコゴ]", "[ざサザ]", "[じシジㇱ]", "[ずスズㇲ]", "[ぜセゼ]", "[ぞソゾ]", "[だタダ]", "[ぢチヂ]", "[っづッツヅ]", "[でテデ]", "[どトドㇳ]", "ナ", "ニ", "[ヌㇴ]", "ネ", "ノ", "[ばぱハバパㇵ]", "[びぴヒビピㇶ]", "[ぶぷフブプㇷ]", "[べぺヘベペㇸ]", "[ぼぽホボポㇹ]", "マ", "ミ", "[ムㇺ]", "メ", "モ", "[ゃャヤ]", "[ゅュユ]", "[ょョヨ]", "[ラㇻ]", "[リㇼ]", "[ルㇽ]", "[レㇾ]", "[ロㇿ]", "[ゎヮワヷ]", "[ヰヸ]", "[ヱヹ]", "[ヲヺ]", "ン", "[゙゚゛゜ゝゞ・ヽヾ]", "𛀀"},
		to   = {"あ", "い", "う", "え", "お", "か", "き", "く", "け", "こ", "さ", "し", "す", "せ", "そ", "た", "ち", "つ", "て", "と", "な", "に", "ぬ", "ね", "の", "は", "ひ", "ふ", "へ", "ほ", "ま", "み", "む", "め", "も", "や", "ゆ", "よ", "ら", "り", "る", "れ", "ろ", "わ", "ゐ", "ゑ", "を", "ん", "", "え"}},
	--]=]
}

m["jv"] = {
	"Javanese",
	"Q33549",
	"poz-sus",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Java"},
	translit_module = "jv-translit",
	ancestors = {"kaw"},
	link_tr = true,
}

m["ka"] = {
	"Georgian",
	"Q8108",
	"ccs-gzn",
	otherNames = {"Kartvelian", "Judeo-Georgian", "Kivruli", "Gruzinic"},
	scripts = {"Geor", "Geok", "Hebr"}, -- Hebr is used to write Judeo-Georgian
	ancestors = {"oge"},
	translit_module = "Geor-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"̂"},
		to   = {""}},
}

m["kg"] = {
	"Kongo",
	"Q33702",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Kikongo", "Koongo", "Laari", "San Salvador Kongo", "Yombe"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ki"] = {
	"Kikuyu",
	"Q33587",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Gikuyu", "Gĩkũyũ"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["kj"] = {
	"Kwanyama",
	"Q1405077",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Kuanyama", "Oshikwanyama"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["kk"] = {
	"Kazakh",
	"Q9252",
	"trk-kip",
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Latn", "kk-Arab"},
	translit_module = "kk-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["kl"] = {
	"Greenlandic",
	"Q25355",
	"esx-inu",
	otherNames = {"Kalaallisut"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["km"] = {
	"Khmer",
	"Q9205",
	"mkh",
	otherNames = {"Cambodian"},
	scripts = {"Khmr"},
	ancestors = {"mkh-mkm"},
	translit_module = "km-translit",
}

m["kn"] = {
	"Kannada",
	"Q33673",
	"dra",
	scripts = {"Knda"},
	ancestors = {"dra-mkn"},
	translit_module = "kn-translit",
}

m["ko"] = {
	"Korean",
	"Q9176",
	"qfa-kor",
	otherNames = {"Modern Korean"},
	scripts = {"Kore", "Hani", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"okm"},
	translit_module = "ko-translit",
}

m["kr"] = {
	"Kanuri",
	"Q36094",
	"ssa-sah",
	otherNames = {"Kanembu", "Bilma Kanuri", "Central Kanuri", "Manga Kanuri", "Tumari Kanuri"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ny", "ǝ", "sh"},
		to   = {"n~", "e~", "s~"}} , -- the sortkey and entry_name are only for standard Kanuri; when dialectal entries get added, someone will have to work out how the dialects should be represented orthographically
	entry_name = {
		from = {"À", "à", "È", "è", "Ǝ̀", "ǝ̀", "Ì", "ì", "Ò", "ò", "Ù", "ù", "Â", "â", "Ê", "ê", "Ǝ̂", "ǝ̂", "Î", "î", "Ô", "ô", "Û", "û", "Ă", "ă", "Ĕ", "ĕ", "Ǝ̆", "ǝ̆", "Ĭ", "ĭ", "Ŏ", "ŏ", "Ŭ", "ŭ", "Á", "á", "É", "é", "Ǝ́", "ǝ́", "Í", "í", "Ó", "ó", "Ú", "ú", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "A", "a", "E", "e", "Ǝ", "ǝ", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u"}},
}

m["ks"] = {
	"Kashmiri",
	"Q33552",
	"inc-dar",
	scripts = {"ks-Arab", "Deva"},
}

m["ku"] = {
	"Kurdish",
	"Q36368",
	"ira-wes",
	scripts = {"Latn", "ku-Arab", "Armn", "Cyrl"},
}

-- "kv" IS TREATED AS "koi", "kpv", SEE WT:LT

m["kw"] = {
	"Cornish",
	"Q25289",
	"cel-bry",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"cnx"},
}

m["ky"] = {
	"Kyrgyz",
	"Q9255",
	"trk-kip",
	otherNames = {"Kirghiz", "Kirgiz"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Latn", "Arab"},
	translit_module = "ky-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["la"] = {
	"Latin",
	"Q397",
	"itc",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"itc-ola"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ĀĂ]", "[āă]", "[ĒĔ]", "[ēĕë]", "[ĪĬÏ]", "[īĭï]", "[ŌŎ]", "[ōŏ]", "[ŪŬÜ]", "[ūŭü]", "Ȳ", "ȳ", MACRON, BREVE, DIAER},
		to   = {"A", "a", "E", "e", "I", "i", "O", "o", "U", "u", "Y", "y"}},
	standardChars = "A-Za-zÆ挜Ā-ăĒ-ĕĪ-ĭŌ-ŏŪ-ŭȲȳ" .. MACRON .. BREVE .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["lb"] = {
	"Luxembourgish",
	"Q9051",
	"gmw",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"gmh"},
}

m["lg"] = {
	"Luganda",
	"Q33368",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Ganda", "Oluganda"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"á", "Á", "é", "É", "í", "Í", "ó", "Ó", "ú", "Ú", "ń", "Ń", "ḿ", "Ḿ", "â", "Â", "ê", "Ê", "î", "Î", "ô", "Ô", "û", "Û" },
		to   = {"a", "A", "e", "E", "i", "I", "o", "O", "u", "U", "n", "N", "m", "M", "a", "A", "e", "E", "i", "I", "o", "O", "u", "U",}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ŋ"},
		to   = {"n"}} ,
}

m["li"] = {
	"Limburgish",
	"Q102172",
	"gmw",
	otherNames = {"Limburgan", "Limburgian", "Limburgic"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"dum"},
}

m["ln"] = {
	"Lingala",
	"Q36217",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Ngala"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["lo"] = {
	"Lao",
	"Q9211",
	"tai-swe",
	otherNames = {"Laotian"},
	scripts = {"Laoo"},
	translit_module = "lo-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ຼ", "ຽ", "ໜ", "ໝ", "([ເແໂໃໄ])([ກ-ຮ])"},
		to   = {"ລ", "ຍ", "ຫນ", "ຫມ", "%2%1"}},
}

m["lt"] = {
	"Lithuanian",
	"Q9083",
	"bat",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"olt"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[áãà]", "[ÁÃÀ]", "[éẽè]", "[ÉẼÈ]", "[íĩì]", "[ÍĨÌ]", "[ýỹ]", "[ÝỸ]", "ñ", "[óõò]", "[ÓÕÒ]", "[úũù]", "[ÚŨÙ]", ACUTE, GRAVE, TILDE},
		to   = {"a",       "A",     "e",     "E",     "i",     "I",     "y",   "Y",   "n",   "o",    "O",     "u",      "U"}} ,
}

m["lu"] = {
	"Luba-Katanga",
	"Q36157",
	"bnt",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["lv"] = {
	"Latvian",
	"Q9078",
	"bat",
	otherNames = {"Lettish", "Lett"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		-- This attempts to convert vowels with tone marks to vowels either with
		-- or without macrons. Specifically, there should be no macrons if the
		-- vowel is part of a diphthong (including resonant diphthongs such
		-- pìrksts -> pirksts not #pīrksts). What we do is first convert the
		-- vowel + tone mark to a vowel + tilde in a decomposed fashion,
		-- then remove the tilde in diphthongs, then convert the remaining
		-- vowel + tilde sequences to macroned vowels, then delete any other
		-- tilde. We leave already-macroned vowels alone: Both e.g. ar and ār
		-- occur before consonants. FIXME: This still might not be sufficient.
		from = {"Ȩ", "ȩ", "[ÂÃÀ]", "[âãà]", "[ÊẼÈ]", "[êẽè]", "[ÎĨÌ]", "[îĩì]", "[ÔÕÒ]", "[ôõò]", "[ÛŨÙ]", "[ûũù]", "[ÑǸ]", "[ñǹ]", "[" .. CIRC .. TILDE ..GRAVE .."]", "([aAeEiIoOuU])" .. TILDE .."?([lrnmuiLRNMUI])" .. TILDE .. "?([^aAeEiIoOuUāĀēĒīĪūŪ])", "([aAeEiIoOuU])" .. TILDE .."?([lrnmuiLRNMUI])" .. TILDE .."?$", "([iI])" .. TILDE .. "?([eE])" .. TILDE .. "?", "A" .. TILDE, "a" .. TILDE, "E" .. TILDE, "e" .. TILDE, "I" .. TILDE, "i" .. TILDE, "U" .. TILDE, "u" .. TILDE, TILDE},
		to   = {"E", "e", "A" .. TILDE, "a" .. TILDE, "E" .. TILDE, "e" .. TILDE, "I" .. TILDE, "i" .. TILDE, "O", "o", "U" .. TILDE, "u" .. TILDE, "N", "n", TILDE, "%1%2%3", "%1%2", "%1%2", "Ā", "ā", "Ē", "ē", "Ī", "ī", "Ū", "ū", ""}},
}

m["mg"] = {
	"Malagasy",
	"Q7930",
	"poz-bre",
	otherNames = {"Betsimisaraka Malagasy", "Betsimisaraka", "Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy", "Northern Betsimisaraka", "Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy", "Southern Betsimisaraka", "Bara Malagasy", "Bara", "Masikoro Malagasy", "Masikoro", "Antankarana", "Antankarana Malagasy", "Plateau Malagasy", "Sakalava", "Tandroy Malagasy", "Tandroy", "Tanosy", "Tanosy Malagasy", "Tesaka", "Tsimihety", "Tsimihety Malagasy", "Bushi", "Shibushi", "Kibushi"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["mh"] = {
	"Marshallese",
	"Q36280",
	"poz-mic",
	scripts = Latn,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ā" , "ļ" , "m̧" , "ņ" , "n̄"  , "o̧" , "ō"  , "ū" },
		to   = {"a~", "l~", "m~", "n~", "n~~", "o~", "o~~", "u~"}} ,
}

m["mi"] = {
	"Maori",
	"Q36451",
	"poz-pep",
	otherNames = {"Māori"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["mk"] = {
	"Macedonian",
	"Q9296",
	"zls",
	scripts = Cyrl,
	translit_module = "mk-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {ACUTE},
		to   = {}},
}

m["ml"] = {
	"Malayalam",
	"Q36236",
	"dra",
	scripts = {"Mlym"},
	translit_module = "ml-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["mn"] = {
	"Mongolian",
	"Q9246",
	"xgn",
	otherNames = {"Khalkha Mongolian"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Mong", "Soyo", "Zanb"}, -- entries in Soyo or Zanb might require prior discussion
	ancestors = {"cmg"},
	translit_module = "mn-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

-- "mo" IS TREATED AS "ro", SEE WT:LT

m["mr"] = {
	"Marathi",
	"Q1571",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"Deva", "Modi"},
	ancestors = {"omr"},
	translit_module = "mr-translit",
}

m["ms"] = {
	"Malay",
	"Q9237",
	"poz-mly",
	otherNames = {"Malaysian", "Standard Malay", "Orang Seletar", "Orang Kanaq", "Jakun", "Temuan"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "ms-Arab"},
}

m["mt"] = {
	"Maltese",
	"Q9166",
	"sem-arb",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"sqr"},
}

m["my"] = {
	"Burmese",
	"Q9228",
	"tbq-brm",
	otherNames = {"Myanmar"},
	scripts = {"Mymr"},
	ancestors = {"obr"},
	translit_module = "my-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["na"] = {
	"Nauruan",
	"Q13307",
	"poz-mic",
	otherNames = {"Nauru"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["nb"] = {
	"Norwegian Bokmål",
	"Q25167",
	"gmq",
	otherNames = {"Bokmål"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"gmq-mno"},
	wikimedia_codes = {"no"},
}

m["nd"] = {
	"Northern Ndebele",
	"Q35613",
	"bnt-ngu",
	otherNames = {"North Ndebele"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["ne"] = {
	"Nepali",
	"Q33823",
	"inc-pah",
	otherNames = {"Nepalese"},
	scripts = {"Deva", "Newa"},
	translit_module = "ne-translit",
	ancestors = {"psu"},
}

m["ng"] = {
	"Ndonga",
	"Q33900",
	"bnt",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["nl"] = {
	"Dutch",
	"Q7411",
	"gmw",
	otherNames = {"Netherlandic", "Flemish"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"dum"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[äáâå]", "[ëéê]", "[ïíî]", "[öóô]", "[üúû]", "ç", "ñ", "^-"},
		to   = {"a"	 , "e"	, "i"	, "o"	, "u"	, "c", "n"}} ,
	standardChars = "A-Za-z0-9" .. PUNCTUATION .. u(0x2800) .. "-" .. u(0x28FF),
}

m["nn"] = {
	"Norwegian Nynorsk",
	"Q25164",
	"gmq",
	otherNames = {"New Norwegian", "Nynorsk"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"gmq-mno"},
}

m["no"] = {
	"Norwegian",
	"Q9043",
	"gmq",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"gmq-mno"},
}

m["nr"] = {
	"Southern Ndebele",
	"Q36785",
	"bnt-ngu",
	otherNames = {"South Ndebele"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["nv"] = {
	"Navajo",
	"Q13310",
	"apa",
	otherNames = {"Navaho", "Diné bizaad"},
	scripts = {"nv-Latn"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áą]", "[éę]", "[íį]", "[óǫ]", "ń", "^n([djlt])", "ł" , "[ʼ’']", ACUTE},
		to   = {"a"   , "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "n", "ni%1"	  , "l~"}}, -- the tilde is used to guarantee that ł will always be sorted after all other words with l
}

m["ny"] = {
	"Chichewa",
	"Q33273",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Chicheŵa", "Chinyanja", "Nyanja", "Chewa", "Cicewa", "Cewa", "Cinyanja"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ŵ", "Ŵ", "á", "Á", "é", "É", "í", "Í", "ó", "Ó", "ú", "Ú", "ń", "Ń", "ḿ", "Ḿ" },
		to   = {"w", "W", "a", "A", "e", "E", "i", "I", "o", "O", "u", "U", "n", "N", "m", "M"}},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ng'"},
		to   = {"ng"}} ,
}

m["oc"] = {
	"Occitan",
	"Q14185",
	"roa",
	otherNames = {"Provençal", "Auvergnat", "Auvernhat", "Gascon", "Languedocien", "Lengadocian", "Shuadit", "Chouhadite", "Chouhadit", "Chouadite", "Chouadit", "Shuhadit", "Judeo-Provençal", "Judeo-Provencal", "Judeo-Comtadin"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hebr"},
	ancestors = {"pro"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[àá]", "[èé]", "[íï]", "[òó]", "[úü]", "ç", "([lns])·h"},
		to   = {"a"   , "e"   , "i"   , "o"   , "u"   , "c", "%1h"	  }} ,
}

m["oj"] = {
	"Ojibwe",
	"Q33875",
	"alg",
	otherNames = {"Chippewa", "Ojibway", "Ojibwemowin", "Southwestern Ojibwa"},
	scripts = {"Cans", "Latn"},
}

m["om"] = {
	"Oromo",
	"Q33864",
	"cus",
	otherNames = {"Orma", "Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo", "West Central Oromo"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Ethi"},
}

m["or"] = {
	"Oriya",
	"Q33810",
	"inc",
	otherNames = {"Odia", "Oorya"},
	scripts = {"Orya"},
	ancestors = {"inc-mor"},
	translit_module = "or-translit",
}

m["os"] = {
	"Ossetian",
	"Q33968",
	"ira-eas",
	otherNames = {"Ossete", "Ossetic", "Digor", "Iron"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Geor", "Latn"},
	ancestors = {"oos"},
	translit_module = "os-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	entry_name = {
		from = {GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["pa"] = {
	"Punjabi",
	"Q58635",
	"inc",
	otherNames = {"Panjabi"},
	scripts = {"Guru", "pa-Arab", "Deva"},
	ancestors = {"psu"},
	translit_module = "translit-redirect",
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x064B), u(0x064C), u(0x064D), u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652)},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["pi"] = {
	"Pali",
	"Q36727",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brah", "Deva", "Beng", "Sinh", "Mymr", "Thai", "Lana", "Khmr"}, -- holds Laoo, not enough glyphes to render
	ancestors = {"sa"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ā", "ī", "ū", "ḍ", "ḷ", "[ṁṃ]", "[ṇñṅ]", "ṭ", "([เแโใไ])([ก-ฮ])", u(0xFE00)},
		to   = {"a", "i", "u", "d", "l", "m"   , "n"	, "t", "%2%1"}} ,
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0xFE00)},
		to   = {}},
}

m["pl"] = {
	"Polish",
	"Q809",
	"zlw",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"zlw-opl"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[Ąą]", "[Ćć]", "[Ęę]", "[Łł]", "[Ńń]", "[Óó]", "[Śś]", "[Żż]", "[Źź]"},
		to   = {
			"a" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"c" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"e" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"l" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"n" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"o" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"s" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"z" .. u(0x10FFFF),
			"z" .. u(0x10FFFE)}} ,
}

m["ps"] = {
	"Pashto",
	"Q58680",
	"ira-eas",
	otherNames = {"Pashtun", "Pushto", "Pashtu", "Central Pashto", "Northern Pashto", "Southern Pashto", "Pukhto", "Pakhto", "Pakkhto", "Afghani"},
	scripts = {"ps-Arab"},
}

m["pt"] = {
	"Portuguese",
	"Q5146",
	"roa",
	otherNames = {"Modern Portuguese"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Brai"},
	ancestors = {"roa-opt"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[àãáâä]", "[èẽéêë]", "[ìĩíï]", "[òóôõö]", "[üúùũ]", "ç", "ñ"},
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	  , "i"	 , "o"	  , "u"	 , "c", "n"}} ,
}

m["qu"] = {
	"Quechua",
	"Q5218",
	"qwe",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["rm"] = {
	"Romansch",
	"Q13199",
	"roa-rhe",
	otherNames = {"Romansh", "Rumantsch", "Romanche"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ro"] = {
	"Romanian",
	"Q7913",
	"roa-eas",
	otherNames = {"Daco-Romanian", "Roumanian", "Rumanian"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl"},
	sort_key = {
        from = {"ă" , "â"  , "î" , "ș" , "ț" },
        to   = {"a~", "a~~", "i~", "s~", "t~"}},
}

m["ru"] = {
	"Russian",
	"Q7737",
	"zle",
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Brai"},
	translit_module = "ru-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ё"},
		to   = {"е" .. mw.ustring.char(0x10FFFF)}},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", "Ѝ", "ѝ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е", "И", "и"}},
	standardChars = "ЁІА-яёі0-9—" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["rw"] = {
	"Rwanda-Rundi",
	"Q33573",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Rwanda", "Kinyarwanda", "Rundi", "Kirundi", "Ha", "Giha", "Hangaza", "Vinza", "Shubi", "Subi"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["sa"] = {
	"Sanskrit",
	"Q11059",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"Deva", "Bali", "as-Beng", "Beng", "Bhks", "Brah", "Gran", "Gujr", "Guru", "Java", "Khar", "Khmr", "Knda", "Lana", "Mlym", "Mymr", "Newa", "Orya", "Saur", "Shrd", "Sidd", "Sinh", "Taml", "Telu", "Thai", "Tibt", "Tirh"}, -- holds Laoo, not enough glyphes to render
	sort_key = {
		from = {"([เแโใไ])([ก-ฮ])", u(0xFE00)},
		to   = {"%2%1"}} ,
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0xFE00)},
		to   = {}},
	translit_module = "translit-redirect",
}

m["sc"] = {
	"Sardinian",
	"Q33976",
	"roa",
	otherNames = {"Campidanese", "Campidanese Sardinian", "Logudorese", "Logudorese Sardinian", "Nuorese", "Nuorese Sardinian"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["sd"] = {
	"Sindhi",
	"Q33997",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"sd-Arab", "Deva", "Sind", "Khoj"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x0671), u(0x064B), u(0x064C), u(0x064D), u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652), u(0x0670), u(0x0640)},
		to   = {u(0x0627)}},
	ancestors = {"psu"},
}

m["se"] = {
	"Northern Sami",
	"Q33947",
	"smi",
	otherNames = {"North Sami", "Northern Saami", "North Saami"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ạ", "[ēẹ]", "ī", "[ōọ]", "ū", "ˈ"},
		to   = {"a", "e"   , "i", "o"   , "u"} },
	sort_key = {
		from = {"á" , "č" , "đ" , "ŋ" , "š" , "ŧ" , "ž" },
		to   = {"a²", "c²", "d²", "n²", "s²", "t²", "z²"} },
	standardChars = "A-PR-VZa-pr-vz0-9ÁáČčĐđŊŋŠšŦŧŽž" .. PUNCTUATION,
}

m["sg"] = {
	"Sango",
	"Q33954",
	"crp",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["sh"] = {
	"Serbo-Croatian",
	"Q9301",
	"zls",
	otherNames = {"BCS", "Croato-Serbian", "Serbocroatian", "Bosnian", "Croatian", "Montenegrin", "Serbian"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ȀÀȂÁĀÃ]", "[ȁàȃáāã]", "[ȄÈȆÉĒẼ]", "[ȅèȇéēẽ]", "[ȈÌȊÍĪĨ]", "[ȉìȋíīĩ]", "[ȌÒȎÓŌÕ]", "[ȍòȏóōõ]", "[ȐȒŔ]", "[ȑȓŕ]", "[ȔÙȖÚŪŨ]", "[ȕùȗúūũ]", "Ѐ", "ѐ", "[ӢЍ]", "[ӣѝ]", "[Ӯ]", "[ӯ]", GRAVE, ACUTE, DGRAVE, INVBREVE, MACRON, TILDE},
		to   = {"A"	  , "a"	  , "E"	  , "e"	  , "I"	  , "i"	  , "O"	  , "o"	  , "R"	, "r"	, "U"	  , "u"	  , "Е", "е", "И"   , "и", "У", "у"   }},
	wikimedia_codes = {"sh", "bs", "hr", "sr"},
}

m["si"] = {
	"Sinhalese",
	"Q13267",
	"inc",
	otherNames = {"Singhalese", "Sinhala"},
	scripts = {"Sinh"},
	ancestors = {"elu-prk"},
	translit_module = "si-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["sk"] = {
	"Slovak",
	"Q9058",
	"zlw",
	scripts = Latn,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áä]", "é", "í", "[óô]", "ú", "ý", "ŕ", "ĺ", "[" .. DIAER .. ACUTE .. CIRC .. "]"},
		to   = {"a"   , "e", "i", "o"   , "u", "y", "r", "l", ""}} ,
}

m["sl"] = {
	"Slovene",
	"Q9063",
	"zls",
	otherNames = {"Slovenian"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ÁÀÂȂȀ]", "[áàâȃȁ]", "[ÉÈÊȆȄỆẸ]", "[éèêȇȅệẹə]", "[ÍÌÎȊȈ]", "[íìîȋȉ]", "[ÓÒÔȎȌỘỌ]", "[óòôȏȍộọ]", "[ŔȒȐ]", "[ŕȓȑ]", "[ÚÙÛȖȔ]", "[úùûȗȕ]", "ł", GRAVE, ACUTE, DGRAVE, INVBREVE, CIRC, DOTBELOW},
		to   = {"A"	  , "a"	  , "E"		, "e"		 , "I"	  , "i"	  , "O"		, "o"		, "R"	, "r"	, "U"	  , "u"	  , "l"}} ,
}

m["sm"] = {
	"Samoan",
	"Q34011",
	"poz-pnp",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["sn"] = {
	"Shona",
	"Q34004",
	"bnt",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["so"] = {
	"Somali",
	"Q13275",
	"cus",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab", "Osma"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[ÁÀÂ]", "[áàâ]", "[ÉÈÊ]", "[éèê]", "[ÍÌÎ]", "[íìî]", "[ÓÒÔ]", "[óòô]", "[ÚÙÛ]", "[úùû]", "[ÝỲ]", "[ýỳ]"},
		to   = {"A"	  , "a"	  , "E"	, "e" , "I"	  , "i"	  , "O"	, "o"	, "U"  , "u", "Y", "y"}} ,
}

m["sq"] = {
	"Albanian",
	"Q8748",
	"sqj",
	otherNames = {"Tosk", "Gheg", "Arvanitika", "Arbëreshë", "Arbëresh"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Grek", "Elba"},
	sort_key = {
		from = { '[âãä]', '[ÂÃÄ]', '[êẽë]', '[ÊẼË]', 'ĩ', 'Ĩ', 'õ', 'Õ', 'ũ', 'Ũ', 'ỹ', 'Ỹ', 'ç', 'Ç' },
		to   = {     'a',     'A',     'e',     'E', 'i', 'I', 'o', 'O', 'u', 'U', 'y', 'Y', 'c', 'C' } } ,
}

m["ss"] = {
	"Swazi",
	"Q34014",
	"bnt-ngu",
	otherNames = {"Swati"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["st"] = {
	"Sotho",
	"Q34340",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Sesotho", "Southern Sesotho", "Southern Sotho"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["su"] = {
	"Sundanese",
	"Q34002",
	"poz-msa",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Sund"},
	translit_module = "su-translit",
}

m["sv"] = {
	"Swedish",
	"Q9027",
	"gmq",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"gmq-osw"},
}

m["sw"] = {
	"Swahili",
	"Q7838",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Settler Swahili", "KiSetla", "KiSettla", "Setla", "Settla", "Kitchen Swahili", "Kihindi", "Indian Swahili", "KiShamba", "Kishamba", "Field Swahili", "Kibabu", "Asian Swahili", "Kimanga", "Arab Swahili", "Kitvita", "Army Swahili"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"ng'", "^-"},
		to   = {"ngz"}} ,
}

m["ta"] = {
	"Tamil",
	"Q5885",
	"dra",
	scripts = {"Taml"},
	ancestors = {"oty"},
	translit_module = "ta-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["te"] = {
	"Telugu",
	"Q8097",
	"dra",
	scripts = {"Telu"},
	translit_module = "te-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["tg"] = {
	"Tajik",
	"Q9260",
	"ira-wes",
	otherNames = {"Tadjik", "Tadzhik", "Tajiki", "Tajik Persian", "Tajiki Persian"},
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "fa-Arab", "Latn"},
	ancestors = {"pal"}, -- same as "fa", see WT:T:AFA
	translit_module = "tg-translit",
	override_translit = true,
	sort_key = {
		from = {"Ё", "ё"},
		to   = {"Е" , "е"}} ,
	entry_name = {
		from = {ACUTE},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["th"] = {
	"Thai",
	"Q9217",
	"tai-swe",
	otherNames = {"Siamese", "Central Thai"},
	scripts = {"Thai", "Brai"},
	translit_module = "th-translit",
	sort_key = {
		from = {"%p", "([เแโใไ])([ก-ฮ])"},
		to   = {"", "%2%1"}},
}

m["ti"] = {
	"Tigrinya",
	"Q34124",
	"sem-eth",
	scripts = {"Ethi"},
	translit_module = "Ethi-translit",
}

m["tk"] = {
	"Turkmen",
	"Q9267",
	"trk-ogz",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"ā", "ē", "ī", "ō", "ū", "ȳ", "ȫ", "ǖ", MACRON},
		to   = {"a", "e", "i", "o", "u", "y", "ö", "ü", ""}},
}

m["tl"] = {
	"Tagalog",
	"Q34057",
	"phi",
	scripts = {"Latn", "Tglg"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[áàâ]", "[éèê]", "[íìî]", "[óòô]", "[úùû]", ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC},
		to   = {"a"    , "e"    , "i"    , "o"    , "u"    }},
}

m["tn"] = {
	"Tswana",
	"Q34137",
	"bnt",
	otherNames = {"Setswana"},
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["to"] = {
	"Tongan",
	"Q34094",
	"poz-pol",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["tr"] = {
	"Turkish",
	"Q256",
	"trk-ogz",
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"ota"},
}

m["ts"] = {
	"Tsonga",
	"Q34327",
	"bnt",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["tt"] = {
	"Tatar",
	"Q25285",
	"trk-kip",
	scripts = {"Cyrl", "Latn", "tt-Arab"},
	translit_module = "tt-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

-- "tw" IS TREATED AS "ak", SEE WT:LT

m["ty"] = {
	"Tahitian",
	"Q34128",
	"poz-pep",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["ug"] = {
	"Uyghur",
	"Q13263",
	"trk",
	otherNames = {"Uigur", "Uighur", "Uygur"},
	scripts = {"ug-Arab", "Latn", "Cyrl"},
	ancestors = {"chg"},
	translit_module = "ug-translit",
	override_translit = true,
}

m["uk"] = {
	"Ukrainian",
	"Q8798",
	"zle",
	scripts = Cyrl,
	ancestors = {"orv"},
	translit_module = "uk-translit",
	entry_name = {
		from = {"Ѐ", "ѐ", "Ѝ", "ѝ", GRAVE, ACUTE},
		to   = {"Е", "е", "И", "и"}},
	standardChars = "ЄІЇА-ЩЫЬЮ-щыьюяєії" .. PUNCTUATION,
} 
m["ur"] = {
	"Urdu",
	"Q1617",
	"inc",
	scripts = {"ur-Arab"},
	ancestors = {"inc-sap"},
	entry_name = {
		from = {u(0x064B), u(0x064C), u(0x064D), u(0x064E), u(0x064F), u(0x0650), u(0x0651), u(0x0652)},
		to   = {}} ,
}

m["uz"] = {
	"Uzbek",
	"Q9264",
	"trk",
	otherNames = {"Northern Uzbek", "Southern Uzbek"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Cyrl", "fa-Arab"},
	ancestors = {"chg"},
}

m["ve"] = {
	"Venda",
	"Q32704",
	"bnt",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["vi"] = {
	"Vietnamese",
	"Q9199",
	"mkh-vie",
	otherNames = {"Annamese", "Annamite"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hani"},
	ancestors = {"mkh-mvi"},
	sort_key = "vi-sortkey",
}

m["vo"] = {
	"Volapük",
	"Q36986",
	"art",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["wa"] = {
	"Walloon",
	"Q34219",
	"roa-oil",
	otherNames = {"Liégeois", "Namurois", "Wallo-Picard", "Wallo-Lorrain"},
	scripts = Latn,
	ancestors = {"fro"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[áàâäå]", "[éèêë]", "[íìîï]", "[óòôö]", "[úùûü]", "[ýỳŷÿ]", "ç", "'"},
		to   = {"a"	  , "e"	 , "i"	 , "o"	 , "u"	 , "y"	 , "c"}} ,
}

m["wo"] = {
	"Wolof",
	"Q34257",
	"alv-sng",
	otherNames = {"Gambian Wolof"}, -- the subsumed dialect 'wof'
	scripts = {"Latn", "Arab"},
}

m["xh"] = {
	"Xhosa",
	"Q13218",
	"bnt-ngu",
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
		from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
		to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

m["yi"] = {
	"Yiddish",
	"Q8641",
	"gmw",
	scripts = {"Hebr"},
	ancestors = {"gmh"},
	sort_key = {
		from = {"[אַאָ]", "בּ", "[וֹוּ]", "יִ", "ײַ", "פֿ"},
		to = {"א", "ב", "ו", "י",	"יי", "פ"}} ,
	translit_module = "yi-translit",
}

m["yo"] = {
	"Yoruba",
	"Q34311",
	"alv-von",
	scripts = Latn,
}

m["za"] = {
	"Zhuang",
	"Q13216",
	"tai",
	otherNames = {"Standard Zhuang", "Dai Zhuang", "Wenma Zhuang", "Wenma Thu", "Wenma", "Nong Zhuang", "Youjiang Zhuang", "Yongbei Zhuang", "Yang Zhuang", "Yongnan Zhuang", "Zuojiang Zhuang", "Central Hongshuihe Zhuang", "Eastern Hongshuihe Zhuang", "Guibei Zhuang", "Minz Zhuang", "Guibian Zhuang", "Liujiang Zhuang", "Lianshan Zhuang", "Liuqian Zhuang", "Qiubei Zhuang", "Chongzuo Zhuang", "Shangsi Zhuang"},
	scripts = {"Latn", "Hani"},
}

m["zh"] = {
	"Chinese",
	"Q7850",
	"sit",
	scripts = {"Hani", "Brai", "Nshu"},
	ancestors = {"ltc"},
	sort_key = "zh-sortkey",
}

m["zu"] = {
	"Zulu",
	"Q10179",
	"bnt-ngu",
	otherNames = {"isiZulu"},
	scripts = Latn,
	entry_name = {
                from = {"[āàáâǎ]", "[ēèéêě]", "[īìíîǐ]", "[ōòóôǒ]", "[ūùúûǔ]", "ḿ", "[ǹńň]", MACRON, ACUTE, GRAVE, CIRC, CARON},
                to   = {"a"      , "e"      , "i"      , "o"      , "u"      , "m", "n"    }},
}

return m