Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/(s)kérdʰh₁eti

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *(s)ker- (to cut off) +‎ *-dʰh₁eti.[1]

Verb[edit]

*(s)kérdʰh₁eti (imperfective)[2]

  1. to cut, pierce

Inflection[edit]

Imperfective, thematic
3rd singular *(s)kérdʰh₁eti
3rd plural *(s)kérdʰh₁onti
Active voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *(s)kérdʰh₁oh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁om *(s)kérdʰh₁ōh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁oyh₁m̥
2nd singular *(s)kérdʰh₁esi *(s)kérdʰh₁es *(s)kérdʰh₁e *(s)kérdʰh₁ēsi *(s)kérdʰh₁oys
3rd singular *(s)kérdʰh₁eti *(s)kérdʰh₁et *(s)kérdʰh₁etu *(s)kérdʰh₁ēti *(s)kérdʰh₁oyt
1st dual *(s)kérdʰh₁owos *(s)kérdʰh₁owe *(s)kérdʰh₁ōwos *(s)kérdʰh₁oywe
2nd dual *(s)kérdʰh₁etes *(s)kérdʰh₁etom *(s)kérdʰh₁etom *(s)kérdʰh₁ētes *(s)kérdʰh₁oytom
3rd dual *(s)kérdʰh₁etes *(s)kérdʰh₁etām *(s)kérdʰh₁etām *(s)kérdʰh₁ētes *(s)kérdʰh₁oytām
1st plural *(s)kérdʰh₁omos *(s)kérdʰh₁ome *(s)kérdʰh₁ōmos *(s)kérdʰh₁oyme
2nd plural *(s)kérdʰh₁ete *(s)kérdʰh₁ete *(s)kérdʰh₁ete *(s)kérdʰh₁ēte *(s)kérdʰh₁oyte
3rd plural *(s)kérdʰh₁onti *(s)kérdʰh₁ont *(s)kérdʰh₁ontu *(s)kérdʰh₁ōnti *(s)kérdʰh₁oyh₁n̥t
Participle *(s)kérdʰh₁onts
Middle voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *(s)kérdʰh₁oh₂er *(s)kérdʰh₁oh₂e *(s)kérdʰh₁ōh₂er *(s)kérdʰh₁oyh₂e
2nd singular *(s)kérdʰh₁eth₂er *(s)kérdʰh₁eth₂e *(s)kérdʰh₁eso *(s)kérdʰh₁ēth₂er *(s)kérdʰh₁oyth₂e
3rd singular *(s)kérdʰh₁etor *(s)kérdʰh₁eto *? *(s)kérdʰh₁ētor *(s)kérdʰh₁oyto, *(s)kérdʰh₁oyh₁o
1st dual *(s)kérdʰh₁owosdʰh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁owedʰh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁ōwosdʰh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁oywedʰh₂
2nd dual *? *? *? *? *?
3rd dual *? *? *? *? *?
1st plural *(s)kérdʰh₁omosdʰh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁omedʰh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁ōmosdʰh₂ *(s)kérdʰh₁oymedʰh₂
2nd plural *(s)kérdʰh₁edʰh₂we *(s)kérdʰh₁edʰh₂we *(s)kérdʰh₁edʰh₂we *(s)kérdʰh₁ēdʰh₂we *(s)kérdʰh₁oydʰh₂we
3rd plural *(s)kérdʰh₁oror, *(s)kérdʰh₁ontor *(s)kérdʰh₁oro, *(s)kérdʰh₁onto *? *(s)kérdʰh₁ōror, *(s)kérdʰh₁ōntor *(s)kérdʰh₁oyro, *(s)kérdʰh₁oyh₁n̥to
Participle *(s)kérdʰh₁omnos

Derived terms[edit]

  • *(s)kordʰh₁-ó-s[3]
    • Proto-Germanic: *skardaz[3] (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Germanic: *skardą (see there for further descendants)
  • *(s)kr̥dʰh₁-ú-s[4]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *kr̥dʰHúš (short, crooked, defective) (see there for further descendants)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “2.*(s)ker-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 556-557
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “?*skerdʰ-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, page 558
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Derksen, Rick (2015), “skersti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 403-404
  4. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992–2001), “kṛdhú-”, in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag
  5. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*skerd-(y)o-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 341-342