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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Related to synonymous *blēdū, but with no known Indo-European cognates. Matasović says Pennaod’s connection of this word with Proto-Indo-European *bʰleyd- (pale) (compare Old Church Slavonic блѣдъ (blědŭ, pale), Old English blāt (pale), Lithuanian blaĩvas (whitish) “is possible formally…[but] the semantic connection is weak.” Stokes suggests Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰleydʰ- (to glide) (Proto-Germanic *glīdaną), but MacBain writes that an evolution of ǵʰ- into Celtic b- is doubtful.[1][2]


*blēdanī f

  1. year


Feminine ī/yā-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *blēdanī *blēdanī *blēdanyās
vocative *blēdanī *blēdanī *blēdanyās
accusative *blēdanīm *blēdanī *blēdanīms
genitive *blēdanyās *blēdanyous *blēdanyom
dative *blēdanyai *blēdanyābom *blēdanyābos
locative *? *? *?
instrumental *? *blēdanyābim *blēdanyābis


Further reading[edit]

  • Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*blēdanī”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 69
  • Pennaod, Jord (1986), “La désignation de l’année en celtique [The designation of the year in Celtic]”, in Études Celtiques (in French), volume 23, pages 53–56
  • Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1995) Studies in British Celtic historical phonology (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 5), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, pages 242–46


  1. ^ Stokes, Whitley; Bezzenberger, Adalbert (1894) Urkeltischer Sprachschatz (Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen; Zweiter Theil) (in German), Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, page 188
  2. ^ MacBain, Alexander; Mackay, Eneas (1911), “bliadhna”, in An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Stirling, →ISBN