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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Unknown. Possibly borrowed or derived from a non-Indo-European substrate. Welsh gwyach (f) points to a geminate form, *wesakkos.[1] Pokorny suggests Proto-Indo-European *wes- (to consume, feast, eat).[2]


*wesākos m

  1. raven
  2. grebe


Masculine o-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *wesākos *wesākou *wesākoi
vocative *wesāke *wesākou *wesākūs
accusative *wesākom *wesākou *wesākoms
genitive *wesākī *wesākous *wesākom
dative *wesākūi *wesākobom *wesākobos
locative *wesākei *? *?
instrumental *wesākū *wesākobim *wesākūis


  • Old Irish: fiach, fíach (raven)
  • Middle Welsh: gwyach (grebe, Podiceps)


  • G. Toner, M. Ní Mhaonaigh, S. Arbuthnot, D. Wodtko, M.-L. Theuerkauf, editors (2019), “fiach”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language
  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “gwyach”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) chapter 1171, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1171