Possibly from a Proto-Indo-European *-neh₁, which would also be the source of Sanskrit विना (vinā, “without”) and possibly Latin supernē (“from above”). The final vowel itself is uncertain; it is usually given as *-ē based on the possibly related forms above.
The first vowel *-a- might not have originally been part of the suffix at all, possibly being detached from the forms the suffix was attached to; but it is usually found as such in Germanic languages.
- Creates adverbs with ablative direction.
- ^ Guus Kroonen. The Proto-Germanic N-Stems: A Study in Diachronic Morphophonology. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2011