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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





Unknown. May be a wanderword from West Asia: compare Persian چپش (čapeš, yearling goat), Proto-Scythian *capi (whence Ossetian цӕу (cæw, goat); probably also loaned into Albanian as cap, cjap (he-goat) and Slavic as *capъ (he-goat)) and Proto-Turkic *čepiš (yearling goat).[1][2]

Other proposals include:





*skēpą n[9]

  1. sheep
    Synonyms: *awiz, *fahaz


neuter a-stemDeclension of *skēpą (neuter a-stem)
singular plural
nominative *skēpą *skēpō
vocative *skēpą *skēpō
accusative *skēpą *skēpō
genitive *skēpas, *skēpis *skēpǫ̂
dative *skēpai *skēpamaz
instrumental *skēpō *skēpamiz




  1. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003) “*keppōn”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology[1], Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 213
  2. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2003) “*skēpan”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology[2], Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 340
  3. ^ Polomé, Edgar C. (1986) “The non-Indo-European component of the Germanic lexicon”, in Annemarie Etter, editor, o-o-per-ro-si. Festschrift für Ernst Risch zum 75. Geburtstag, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pages 661–672
  4. ^ Polomé, Edgar C. (1990) “The Indo-Europeanization of northern Europe: the linguistic evidence”, in Journal of Indo-European Studies, volume 18, pages 331–338
  5. ^ Huld, M. E. (1990) “The linguistic typology of the old European substrata in North Central Europe”, in Journal of Indo-European Studies, volume 18, pages 389–411
  6. ^ Vennemann, Theo (1994) “Linguistic reconstruction in the context of European prehistory”, in Transactions of the Philological Society, volume 92, pages 215–284
  7. ^ Vennemann, Theo (1998) “Basken, Semiten, Indogermanen. Urheimatfragen in linguistischer und anthropologischer Sicht”, in Wolfgang Meid, editor, Sprache und Kultur der Indogermanen. Akten der X. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Innsbruck, 22.–28. September 1996, volume 93, Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft, pages 119–138
  8. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2011) The Proto-Germanic n-stems: A study in diachronic morphophonology, Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 45
  9. 9.0 9.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) “*skēpa-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 443
  10. ^ Mallory, J. P., Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 140:*(s)k̂egos