Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-yōs

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

For **-yoss, from *-yos- (with nominative *-s), an intensive marker signifying "very", "rather". It was directly added to the e-grade root (if there was one) rather than to the stem of the adjective noun.

Suffix[edit]

*-(é)-yōs

  1. Forms adjectives from roots, meaning "very" or "rather".

Declension[edit]

Athematic, amphikinetic
masculine feminine
nominative *-é-yōs *-∅-yésih₂
genitive *-∅-isés *-∅-isyéh₂s
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *-é-yōs *-é-yosh₁(e) *-é-yoses
vocative *-é-yos *-é-yosh₁(e) *-é-yoses
accusative *-é-yosm̥ *-é-yosh₁(e) *-é-yosm̥s
genitive *-∅-isés *? *-∅-isóHom
ablative *-∅-isés *? *-∅-ismós
dative *-∅-iséy *? *-∅-ismós
locative *-∅-yés, *-∅-yési *? *-∅-isú
instrumental *-∅-iséh₁ *? *-∅-isbʰí
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *-∅-yésih₂ *-∅-yésih₂h₁(e) *-∅-yésih₂es
vocative *-∅-yésih₂ *-∅-yésih₂h₁(e) *-∅-yésih₂es
accusative *-∅-yésih₂m̥ *-∅-yésih₂h₁(e) *-∅-yésih₂m̥s
genitive *-∅-isyéh₂s *? *-∅-isyéh₂oHom
ablative *-∅-isyéh₂s *? *-∅-isyéh₂mos
dative *-∅-isyéh₂ey *? *-∅-isyéh₂mos
locative *-∅-isyéh₂, *-∅-isyéh₂i *? *-∅-isyéh₂su
instrumental *-∅-isyéh₂h₁ *? *-∅-isyéh₂bʰi
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *-é-yos *-é-yosih₁ *-é-yōs
vocative *-é-yos *-é-yosih₁ *-é-yōs
accusative *-é-yos *-é-yosih₁ *-é-yōs
genitive *-∅-isés *? *-∅-isóHom
ablative *-∅-isés *? *-∅-ismós
dative *-∅-iséy *? *-∅-ismós
locative *-∅-yés, *-∅-yési *? *-∅-isú
instrumental *-∅-iséh₁ *? *-∅-isbʰí

Usage notes[edit]

Adverbs were formed by using the stem, *-yos-, without any ending.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]