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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Alternative reconstructions




*bʰeh₂ǵʰús m[2][3]

  1. arm


Athematic, proterokinetic
nominative *bʰéh₂ǵʰus
genitive *bʰeh₂ǵʰéws
singular dual plural
nominative *bʰéh₂ǵʰus *bʰéh₂ǵʰuh₁(e) *bʰéh₂ǵʰewes
vocative *bʰéh₂ǵʰu *bʰéh₂ǵʰuh₁(e) *bʰéh₂ǵʰewes
accusative *bʰéh₂ǵʰum *bʰéh₂ǵʰuh₁(e) *bʰéh₂ǵʰums
genitive *bʰeh₂ǵʰéws *? *bʰeh₂ǵʰéwoHom
ablative *bʰeh₂ǵʰéws *? *bʰeh₂ǵʰúmos
dative *bʰeh₂ǵʰéwey *? *bʰeh₂ǵʰúmos
locative *bʰeh₂ǵʰéw, *bʰeh₂ǵʰéwi *? *bʰeh₂ǵʰúsu
instrumental *bʰeh₂ǵʰúh₁ *? *bʰeh₂ǵʰúmis


  • Proto-Germanic: *bōguz
  • Proto-Hellenic: *pā́kʰus (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *bʰaHȷ́ʰúš (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Tocharian: *pokowjä-[4]


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 72
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P., Adams, D. Q., editors (1997), Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 26
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  4. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013) “poko*”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 434:*pokowi̯ä-