*g(ʰ)i or *g(ʰ)e or *g(ʰ)o
- Postpositional intensifying particle, indeed, at any rate, in fact
- Discourse particle, indeed, of course, surely
The particle in Proto-Indo-European was indeclinable. Some daughter languages, particularly Italic, added pronominal inflection later, as also occurred with particles *de, *h₁ew, and *ḱe. This particle could either be post-posed to the word it intensified (e.g *Hyód-gʰe wóyde - that which he knows) or that it otherwise modified (e.g *né-gʰí - not at all, not indeed), or it could begin discourse in which it is place before everything else (e.g *gʰí ... - of course, ...). The presence or lack of aspiration as well as the ablaut grade appear to have been completely arbitrary, and may have been subject to dialectal variation.
- *gʰe-ḱe (combined with *ḱe)
- *ne-g(ʰ)i (combined with *ne)
- *sm̥-gʰé (combined with *sm̥-)