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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


*gʰeh₁bʰ- or *ǵʰeh₁bʰ-[4][5]

  1. to grab, take

Reconstruction notes[edit]

The surface ablaut a ~ ē is somewhat unusual, but Italo-Celtic *a can result from “syllabic” *H̥, thus *h₁ ~ *eh₁ appears to be the best match. The instances of full-grade ē may be analogical, however, so the laryngeal cannot be reconstructed with certainty.[5] Zero grades shown below use *h̥₁, but note that the existence of syllabic laryngeals in synchronic PIE is disputed.
See *gʰebʰ-, which is often taken to be the same root, for more possible descendants; see Schrijver's arguments for a rejection of this.[4]

Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “ghabh-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 407–409
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “?*⁽g̑⁾ʰeHb-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 195–196
  3. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*gab-yo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, pages 148–149
  4. 4.0 4.1 Schrijver, Peter C. H. (1991) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Latin (Leiden studies in Indo-European; 2), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, →ISBN, § Material, pages 92–93, s.v. “habēre”
  5. 5.0 5.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “habeō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 277–278