Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/gʷṓws

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Noun[edit]

*gʷṓws m or f[1][2]

  1. cattle

Inflection[edit]

Athematic, acrostatic
singular
nominative *gʷṓws
genitive *gʷéws
singular dual plural
nominative *gʷṓws *gʷówh₁(e) *gʷówes
vocative *gʷów *gʷówh₁(e) *gʷówes
accusative *gʷṓm *gʷówh₁(e) *gʷówm̥s
genitive *gʷéws *? *gʷéwoHom
ablative *gʷéws *? *gʷéwmos
dative *gʷéwey *? *gʷéwmos
locative *gʷéw, *gʷéwi *? *gʷéwsu
instrumental *gʷéwh₁ *? *gʷéwbʰi

Derived terms[edit]

  • *gʷow-kʷólh₁-o-s (cowherd) (+ *kʷelh₁- (to make a turn, turn around))[1]
    • Proto-Celtic: *boukolyos (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic: *gʷoukólos
  • *gʷow-io- or *gʷh₃ew-io-
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: կոգի (kogi, butter)

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Albanian: *gau
  • Proto-Albanian: *kē (from earlier *kʷē) (an early loanword from a different IE language)
    • Albanian: ka (ox)
      • Albanian: gak (boar)
  • Proto-Anatolian: [Term?]
    • Luwian:
      Anatolian Hieroglyphs: 𔑺𔗬𔗔 (BOSwa/i-s(a) /wawis/)
  • Armenian:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *gaw-, *gōw-
    • Latgalian: gūvs
    • Latvian: govs
    • Proto-Slavic: *govędo < *gʷew-n̥d- (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Slavic: *govьno (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Slavic: *gumьno (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Slavic: *gavęzь (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *bāus (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *kūz (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *gʷous
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *gā́wš (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *gʷōs
    • Oscan: buv-
    • Umbrian: 𐌁𐌖𐌌 (bum, accusative singular), bue (ablative singular), 𐌁𐌖𐌚 (buf), buf (accusative plural)
    • Volscian: bim (accusative singular) < *būm
    • Latin: bōs (loanword from Sabellic, the expected inherited form would have *v-)
  • Thracian: bonassos
  • Proto-Tocharian: *kewä
    • Tocharian A: ko
    • Tocharian B: keu

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Pokorny, Julius (1959), “gou-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 482-483
  2. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN