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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to throw, reach, pierce; to hit by throwing

Reconstruction notes[edit]

On the basis of Celtic nasal-infix present *balnīti and several Greek derived terms like βέλεμνον (bélemnon, javelin, dart) the laryngeal may be reconstructed as *h₁.

Derived terms[edit]

  • *gʷelH-éti (root present)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: կեղ (keł, wound, sore, ulcer), կեղեմ (kełem, to torment, torture, afflict), (possibly) կեղերջ (kełerǰ, complaint, grievance, pain)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *gráHti
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: dzel̂t (to sting)
      • Lithuanian: gélti (to hurt severely)
    • Proto-Germanic: *kwelaną (see there for further descendants)
  • *gʷl̥-né-h₁-ti ~ *gʷl̥-n-h₁-énti (nasal infix present)
    • Proto-Celtic: *balnīti (to die) (see there for further descendants)
  • *gʷelHtlom or *gʷelHdʰlom
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Proto-Slavic: *žędlo (< *geldlo) (Vasmer) (see there for further descendants)
  • *gʷélH-os
    • Hellenic:
  • *gʷelH-ón-eh₂
  • *gʷélH-m̥n-o-
  • *gʷelh₁-éh₂-ye-ti
  • *gʷl̥H-id-yé-
  • *gʷl̥H-mn̥
  • *gʷl̥H-tós
  • *gʷl̥H-trom
  • *gʷolH-éye- (causative)
    • Proto-Germanic: *kwaljaną (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic:
  • *gʷolH-mos
    • Proto-West Germanic: *kwalm (see there for further descendants)
  • *gʷόlH-os
    • possibly Proto-Balto-Slavic: *galas
      • Latvian: gals (tip, end; death)
      • Lithuanian: gãlas (tip, end; death)
      • Old Prussian: gallan (acc.), golis (death)
    • Hellenic:
  • Unsorted formations:


  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “volō, -āre”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 687–688