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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]

  • *pént-oh₂-s ~ *pént-oh₂-m̥ ~ *pn̥t-h₂-és (amphidynamic *h₂-stem)[1][2]
  • *pont-éh₂-s ~ *pont-éh₂-m̥ ~ *pn̥t-h₂-és (hysterodynamic *h₂-stem)[2]
  • *pont-éh₁-s ~ *pn̥t-h₁-ós[3]
  • *pónt-eh₁-s ~ *pn̥t-h₁-ós (hysterodynamic *h₁-stem)[4][5][6]
  • *pónt-h₁-s ~ *pn̥t-éh₁-m̥ ~ *pn̥t-h₁-ós[7]
  • *pónt-ōh₂-s[8]


From *pent-.



  1. path
    Synonyms: *stéyks, *stóygʰos


Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *póntoh₁s
genitive *pn̥th₁és
singular dual plural
nominative *póntoh₁s *póntoh₁h₁(e) *póntoh₁es
vocative *póntoh₁ *póntoh₁h₁(e) *póntoh₁es
accusative *póntoh₁m̥ *póntoh₁h₁(e) *póntoh₁m̥s
genitive *pn̥th₁és *? *pn̥th₁óHom
ablative *pn̥th₁és *? *pn̥th₁mós
dative *pn̥th₁éy *? *pn̥th₁mós
locative *póntoh₁, *póntoh₁i *? *pn̥th₁sú
instrumental *pn̥th₁éh₁ *? *pn̥th₁mís



  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “pent-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 471-472
  2. 2.0 2.1 Goto, Toshifumi (2013) Old Indo-Aryan Morphology and its Indo-Iranian Background (Veroffentlichungen zur Iranistik; 60)‎[1], Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, →ISBN, page 43
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “πόντος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1221
  4. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*finþan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 142
  5. 5.0 5.1 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “hun”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden and Boston: Brill, pages 422–426
  6. 6.0 6.1 Lubotsky, Alexander (2011), “pánthā-”, in The Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (in progress) (Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project), Leiden University
  7. 7.0 7.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “pōns, -tis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 408
  8. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 99: “*póntōh₂s”
  9. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “pent-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 808-809
  10. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*pǫ́tь”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden; Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, pages 417-418
  11. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “amäkṣpänte”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN