Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/terh₂-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*terh₂-[1][2][3][4][5][6]

  1. to cross over, pass through, overcome

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • *térh₂-e-ti (thematic root present)[2][3][7][8][9]
    • Proto-Anatolian:
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *tárHati (see there for further descendants)
  • *tí-terh₂-ti ~ *tí-tr̥h₂-n̥ti (i-reduplicated athematic root present)[2][10][3][7]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *títarHti ~ *títr̥Hati (see there for further descendants)
  • *tr̥h₂-é-ti ("tudati"-type thematic root present)[11][12]
  • *tr̥-né-h₂-ti ~ *tr-n̥-h₂-énti (nasal infix)[18][7]
Compounds
  • *tr̥h₂-kʷe or *tr̥h₂-h₃kʷ-
    • Proto-Germanic: *þurhw (through) (see there for further descendants)
  • >? *néḱ-t(e)rh₂-s ~ *neḱ-tr̥h₂-és (+ *neḱ- (to perish))[22]
    • Proto-Hellenic: *néktər

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Pokorny, Julius (1959), “4. ter-, terə-:tr̥̄-, trā-, teru-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 1074-1075
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*terh₂-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 633-634
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Kümmel, Martin Joachim (2011–2015), “*terh₂-”, in Addenda und Corrigenda zu LIV²
  4. 4.0 4.1 Byrd, Andrew Miles (2015) The Indo-European Syllable (Brill's Studies in Indo-European Languages & Linguistics; 15), Leiden: Brill, page 276: “*terh₂-”
  5. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), “*terh₂-”, in The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (Oxford Linguistics), New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 289
  6. 6.0 6.1 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997), “terh₂-”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 229: “*terh₂ti; *treh₂i̯e/o-”
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*þerhwe ~ *þurhwe”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 538-539
  8. ^ Elbourne, Paul (2000), “Plain Voiceless Stop plus Laryngeal in Indo-European”, in Historische Sprachforschung / Historical Linguistics, volume 113, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, JSTOR 41289017, page 13: “*térH₂-e-ti”
  9. 9.0 9.1 Malzahn, Melanie (2016), “Tudáti-presents and the tēzzi Principle”, in Sahasram Ati Srajas. Indo-Iranian and Indo-European Studies in Honor of Stephanie W. Jamison[1], Ann Arbor; New York: Beech Stave Press, page 227: “*tērh₂-/*trēh₂-; *térh₂-ti/*tr̥h₂-énti”
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Kulikov, Leonid (2017), “Part 4 Chapter 2: Indo-Aryan”, in Kapović, Mate, editor, The Indo-European Languages (Routledge Language Family Series), 2nd edition, London, New York: Routledge, →ISBN, page 224: “*-tr̥h₂-e-; *e-tērh₂-s-; *-tr̥h₂-no-”
  11. ^ Lindeman, Fredrik Otto (1987) Introduction to the ‘Laryngeal Theory’ (Serie B: Skrifter; 74), Olso: Norwegian University Press, →ISBN, page 46: “*tr̥H₂-é-”
  12. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004, 2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell, page 189: “*tr̥h₂-é-”
  13. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[2], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 192: “*t(e)ratja”
  14. ^ Kümmel, Martin Joachim (2011–2015), “*terh₂-”, in Addenda und Corrigenda zu LIV²
  15. 15.0 15.1 Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta (2004) Die keltischen Primärverben: ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon [The Celtic Primary Verbs: A comparative, etymological and morphological lexicon] (Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Sprachwissenschaft; 110) (in German), Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck, →ISBN, page 620: “*tar-i̯e/o-”
  16. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 95: “'tr̥H₂-yᵉ/ₒ-”
  17. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*tar-yo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 372
  18. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander (2011), “tar¹ (tur) {1”, in The Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (in progress) (Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project), Leiden University}
  19. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “άτέραμνος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 162: “*τέραμα”
  20. ^ Zair, Nicholas (2012) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Celtic, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 82: “*treh₂-tu-”
  21. 21.0 21.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page *trātu-
  22. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “νέκταρ, -αρος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 1004-1005: “*neḱ-trh₂-os”