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This Proto-Iranian entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


Possibly from *fra- +‎ *pušyáti (to prosper, thrive, flower) +‎ *-aH, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *pušyáti (whence Sanskrit पुष्यति (puṣyáti)), from Proto-Indo-European *pus-yé-ti, from *pews- (to multiply, prosper) +‎ *-yéti.[2] Alternatively perhaps related to Ancient Greek ἄλφιτον (álphiton, barley-groats), Albanian elb (barley), ultimately borrowed from Proto-Turkic *arpa (barley) (whence Turkish arpa).[3]


*arpasyaH f[2][1]

  1. barley


  • Northeastern Iranian:
    • Saka-Wakhi: [Term?]
      • Khotanese: [script needed] (rrusā) (perhaps[2], possibly influenced by [script needed] (rrūd-, to grow))
      • Wakhi: [script needed] (arbəsi)
    • Chorasmian: [script needed] (rys), [script needed] (rsy)
  • Southeastern Iranian:
    • Pashto:
      • Pashto:
        Afndi: وربشه(wurbə́ša), [script needed] (warbaše)
        Pashto: اربشه(urbə́ša), اوربشه(orbə́ša), اوربوشه(orbúša)
        Waziri: [script needed] (rebəše) (perhaps influenced by رېبل(rebə́l, to reap)[2]), [script needed] (ērbəše)
      • Waneci: [script needed] (arbasa)
    • Sanglechi-Ishkashimi: [Term?]
      • Ishkashimi: [script needed] (úrvəs), [script needed] (wurwəs), [script needed] (urwus)
      • Sanglechi: [script needed] (vərvəs), [script needed] (vərvēs)
    • Yidgha: [script needed] (yɛršio)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Morgenstierne, George (1938) Iranian Pamir Languages (Indo-Iranian Frontier Languages), volume II, Oslo: Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning; H. Aschehoug & Co. (W. Nygaard), page 417
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Morgenstierne, Georg (1927) An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto (Skrifter utgitt av det Norske Videnskapsakademi i Oslo; 3), Oslo: J. Dybwad
  3. ^ Jokl, Norbert (1911) Studien zur albanesischen Etymologie und Wortbildung (Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften), page 90