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This Proto-Ryukyuan entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.
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From Proto-Japonic *-nka (genitive marker (in pronouns)).



  1. nominative and genitive case marker

Usage notes[edit]

Ryukyuan languages use a hierarchy to determine which of its nominative and genitive markers, *ga and *no, to use. This hierarchy has two layers, consisting of higher and lower layers.[1]

  • The higher nominative and genitive marker is *ga, used primarily by pronouns referring to humans.
  • The lower nominative and genitive marker is *no, used by any nominals that do not use *ga.

This hierarchy is subject to much variation in the daughter languages. In Northern Amami-Ōshima, genitive *ga is only used with demonstrative pronouns, while personal pronouns, names of humans, and kinship terms do not take any genitive marker, while Yaeyama lost its reflex of *ga altogether.


  • Northern Ryukyuan:
    • Kikai: (ga)
    • Kunigami: (ga)
    • Northern Amami-Oshima: (ga)
    • Okinawan: (ga)
    • Oki-No-Erabu: (ga)
    • Southern Amami-Oshima: (ga)
    • Toku-No-Shima: (ga)
    • Yoron: (ga)
  • Southern Ryukyuan

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2018) “Ryukyuan and the reconstruction of proto-Japanese-Ryukyuan”, in Handbook of Japanese historical linguistics, De Gruyter Mouton.