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This Proto-Semitic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*warḫ- m

  1. moon
  2. month

Reconstruction notes[edit]

Huehnergard reconstructs this item as *wariḫ-, with the unbound form *wariḫum alternating with the bound form *warḫu. The semantic extension from "moon" to "month" is comparable to the one of Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s.



  • East Semitic:
    • Akkadian: 𒌗 (ITI (UD-šeššig) /(w)arḫu/, month)
  • Northwest Semitic:
    • Imperial Aramaic: 𐡉𐡓𐡇𐡀(yrḥʾ)
      • Western Middle Aramaic:
        • Jewish Palestinian Aramaic: ירח(yrḥ /yraḥ/, moon); ירחא(yarḥā, month)
        • Christian Palestinian Aramaic: ܝܪܚܐ(yrḥʾ, moon; month)
        • Nabataean Aramaic: 𐢍𐢛𐢊(yrḥ)
      • Eastern Middle Aramaic:
        • Hatran Aramaic: 𐣩𐣣𐣧(yrḥ)
        • Palmyrene Aramaic: 𐡩𐡴𐡧(yrḥ /yraḥ/, moon)
        • Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: ירח(yrḥ /yraḥ/, moon); ירחא(yarḥā, month)
        • Classical Mandaic: [script needed] (iahra, moon) (metathesized)
        • Classical Syriac: ܝܪܚܐ(yarḥāʾ, month)
    • Hebrew: יָרֵחַ(yārḗaḥ)
    • Phoenician: 𐤉𐤓𐤇(yrḥ, moon)
    • Ugaritic: 𐎊𐎗𐎃 (yrḫ, moon, month)


  • Kogan, Leonid, Genealogical Classification of Semitic. The Lexical Isoglosses, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2015, →ISBN
  • Huehnergard, John, “Proto-Semitic”, in Huehnergard, John and Na'ama Pat-El, editors, The Semitic Languages, 2nd edition, Routledge, 2019, →ISBN