Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/ŋa-j ~ ka

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ngaɣ/ngay (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *ŋa (Chou, 1972; Benedict, 1972); *ŋɑ (Chou, 1972); *ŋay (Benedict, 1972); *ŋǎy (Matisoff, 1985); *ŋay (Weidert, 1987); *ka ⪤ ŋa (LaPolla, 1987); *ŋa-y (Matisoff, 2003); *ŋa-y ⪤ *ka (Matisoff, STEDT)

Pronoun[edit]

*ŋa-j ~ ka

  1. I, me

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*ŋˁa/ (B-S); /*ŋaː/ (ZS) ("I"), /*ŋˁajʔ/ (B-S); /*ŋaːlʔ/ (ZS) ("I")
    (Note: Gong Huangcheng argued that the distinction between and was that of the nominative/accusative or subject/oblique cases. (*ŋag in his reconstruction) was the nominative case pronoun, and (*ŋal) was the accusative case pronoun.)
    ( in the oracle bone script) 我-oracle.svg
    • Middle Chinese: (ŋuo), (ŋɑX)

         Japanese:   (, ​ga)
            Korean:   (, a)
            Vietnamese:  ngã

      (Both words survive in compounds and as literary readings. Listed below are the colloquial words for "I" in each dialect, all from this etymon.)
      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: /u̯ɔ˨˩˦/
        • Jinan: /uə˥/, /ŋæ̃˥/ (fusion with )
        • Shenyang: /uə˨˩˧/, /ə˨˩˧/
        • Xi'an: /ŋə˥˧/
        • Chengdu: /ŋo˥˧/
        • Kunming: /uo˥˧/
        • Hefei: /u˨˦/, /u˨˩˨/
        • Yangzhou: /o˦˨/
      • Wu
        • Suzhou: /ŋəu˧˩/
        • Shanghai: /ŋu˨˧ ~ ɦu˨˧/, /ŋu˥˧/
        • Wenzhou: /ŋ̍˨˦/
      • Xiang
        • Changsha: /ŋo˦˩/
      • Gan
        • Nanchang: /ŋə˨˩˧/
      • Hakka
        • Meixian: 𠊎 /ŋai˩˨/
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /ŋo˨˧/
        • Yangjiang: /ŋɔ˨˩/
    • Min
      • Amoy: /ɡua˥˧/
      • Teochow: /ua˥˧/
      • Fuzhou: /ŋuai˧˩/
  • Kamarupan
    • Bodo-Garo = Barish
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan: (nga, I) /ŋa˩˨/
    • Mahakiranti
      • Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwar
      • Kiranti
        • Eastern Kiranti = Rai
        • Western Kiranti
        • Kulung:
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • rGyalrongic
  • Jingpho-Asakian
    • Nungic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese: *ŋa¹ (Weidert, 1987)
      • Burmish: *C-ŋa¹/ (Bradley, 1979)
        • Burmese: ငါ (nga, I) /ŋà/
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (nga), (ngax, I, me)
  • Tani:
    • Western Tani: