Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/d/s-kəw

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *d-kəw (Chou, 1972); *dkʷjəɣʷ (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *d/s-kəw (Matisoff, STEDT; Mortensen, 2012); *d-kuw (Benedict, 1972; Chou, 1972; LaPolla, 1987; Weidert, 1987)

Numeral[edit]

*d/s-kəw

  1. nine

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*kuʔ/ (B-S; ZS)
    • Middle Chinese: (kɨuX)
      • Mandarin:
        Standard: (jiǔ) /t͡ɕi̯oʊ̯²¹⁴/
        Sichuanese: (jiu3) /t͡ɕiəu⁵³/
        Dungan: җю (žiu) /t͡ɕiou⁵¹/
      • Cantonese:
        Guangzhou: (gau2) /kɐu̯³⁵/
        Taishanese: (giu1) /kiu⁵⁵/
      • Wu:
        Shanghainese: (jieu) /t͡ɕiɜ³⁴/
      • Min:
        • Min Nan:
          Hokkien: (káu (vernacular), kiú (literary))
          Amoy: /kaʊ⁵³/, /kiu⁵³/
          Kaohsiung: /kaʊ⁴¹/, /kiu⁴¹/
          Quanzhou: /kaʊ⁵⁵⁴/, /kiu⁵⁵⁴/
          Taipei: /kaʊ⁵³/, /kiu⁵³/
          Zhangzhou: /kaʊ⁵³/, /kiu⁵³/
          Teochew: (gao2 (vernacular), giu2 (literary)) /kau⁵²/, /kiu⁵²/
      • Japanese: (kyū)
      • Korean: (gu)
      • Tai: *kɤwᶜ (see there for further descendants)
      • Vietnamese: cửu
  • Tibeto-Burman:
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
    • Lolo-Burmese:
    • Qiangic:
      • Tangut: 𗢭 (gjɨ), /*ɡʲʏ⁵⁵/
    • Sal:
  • Karen: *khwiᴬ (Luangthongkum, 2013)