Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/kaliti

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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From *kalъ (mud, dirt) +‎ *-iti.

Verb[edit]

*kaliti[1]

  1. to soil, muddle (e. g. water)
Descendants[edit]
  • South Slavic:
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: ка́лити
      Latin: káliti
    • Slovene: kalíti
  • West Slavic:

Etymology 2[edit]

Uncertain.

According to one hypothesis, cognate with Latin callus (hard) and a group of Celtic words with senses like 'hard, strong, cruel', e. g. Gaulish Caleti, Old Irish calad, Welsh caled etc. Thus possibly derived from Proto-Indo-European *keHl-/*kHl-.

According to Trubachev, a Slavic semantical development in the Iron Age from *kaliti I, explained by clay (which was used in the tempering process) muddling the water in which the metal ware was tempered. In such a case the aforementioned Celtic words may have developed from *ḱlH-eto (cold), see Proto-Celtic *kaleto-, as proposed by Joseph (leaving callus without an etymology).

Relation to Latvian kàlstu, kàlst (to dry up, solidify) is unclear.

Verb[edit]

*kaliti[2]

  1. to temper
  2. to case-harden
Descendants[edit]
  • East Slavic:
  • South Slavic:
    • Bulgarian: каля́ (kaljá, to temper, case-harden)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: ка́лити (to temper, case-harden)
      Latin: káliti
    • Slovene: kalíti (to temper, case-harden)
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: kaliti (to temper, case-harden)
    • Slovak: kaliť (to temper, case-harden)
Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*kaliti II”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 220: “v. ‘soil’”
  2. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*kaliti I”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 219: “v. ‘temper, case-harden’”