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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Balto-Slavic *árbas, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃órbʰos (orphan). Cognate with Ancient Greek ὀρφανός (orphanós, orphaned), Latin orbus (orphaned), Old Armenian որբ (orb, orphan; orphaned) and Sanskrit अर्भ (árbha, child; small). Per Derksen, probably also cognate with Proto-Germanic *arbaidiz.


*õrbъ m[1][2][3]

  1. servant, slave


Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: робъ (robŭ)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Old Cyrillic script: рабъ (rabŭ)
      Glagolitic script: ⱃⰰⰱⱏ (rabŭ)
      • Old East Slavic: рабъ (rabŭ) (see there for further descendants)
      • Old Novgorodian:
        Old Cyrillic script: рабе (rabe)
        Glagolitic script: ⱃⰰⰱⰵ (rabe)
    • Bulgarian: раб (rab)
    • Macedonian: раб (rab)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic script: ра̏б
      Latin script: rȁb
  • West Slavic:
    • Old Czech: rob
    • Slovak: (dialectal) rob
    • Bulgarian: роб (rob)
    • Macedonian: роб (rob)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic script: роб
      Latin script: rob
    • Slovene: rob
  • Non-Slavic:
    • Hungarian: rab
      • Old Slovak: rab
    • Romanian: rob

Further reading[edit]

  • Trubachyov, O., Zhuravlyov, A. F., editors (2005), “*orbъ/*orba”, in Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), issue 32 (*obžьnъ – *orzbotati), Moscow: Nauka, →ISBN, page 131
  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973), “раб”, in Этимологический словарь русского языка [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), transl. & suppl. by Oleg Trubachyov, Moscow: Progress
  • Савва Михайлович (2012), “22 Древнерусских глаголических надписи-граффити XI–XII веков из Новгорода” in Slovo, vol. 62, pp. 63-99.


  1. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*orbъ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden; Boston: Brill, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 373: “m. o ‘servant, slave’”
  2. ^ Olander, Thomas (2001), “orbъ”, in Common Slavic Accentological Word List, Copenhagen: Editiones Olander: “b? slave (PR 134)”
  3. ^ Snoj, Marko (2016), “rọ̑b”, in Slovenski etimološki slovar [Slovenian Etymology Dictionary] (in Slovene), 3rd edition, “*orbъ̏”