- Shanxi (proscribed)
The double-a spelling, used certainly to avoid homography with Shanxi (山西 (Shānxī), of shān rather than shǎn), is not a feature of Hanyu Pinyin and cannot be observed elsewhere. It is likely inherited from the pre-Pinyin Sin Wenz system devised and employed by Communist linguists, which was toneless and had designated "irregular spellings" to disambiguate tonally different words in cases where homography was clearly both unavoidable and undesirable. A Sin Wenz textbook from 1938 (《中文拉丁化課本》) explicitly lists the pairs Shaansi (陝西／陕西) and Shansi (山西).
An alternative theory is that the double-a spelling is from the Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization system, where the third tone is spelled by doubling a vowel, but this is less likely considering the history of Gwoyeu Romatzyh and Sin Wenz, including the historical rivalry between the two systems.
- A province in China, with its capital at Xi'an and including the Wei River valley and the fertile southern half of the Ordos Loop, comprising much of the Loess Plateau.
- [1856, Thomas Taylor Meadows, The Chinese and their Rebellions, London: Smith, Elder & Co., OCLC 318266730, page 176:
- The fact, therefore, that the Tae pings, when they raised the siege of Hwae king on the 1st September marched westwards by it into Shan se, shows that the Imperial forces were strong enough to prevent their descent by the Wei river.]
- [1963 June 24, Yang, Chung-chien, “Questions of Neotectonics in the Northern Foothills of the Ch'inling”, in V. N. Pavlinov, editor, Works of the First Conference on Neotectonics in China, OCLC 38685280, page 123:
- In the fluvial deposits which have developed to the west of the village of T'ungeshanchen in Yuanchu County of Shenhsi Province, one can find the Nihewan fauna (Axis rugosus, etc.).]
- 1979 August, Lan Cao, “Tomb of the Yellow Emperor”, in China Reconstructs, volume XXVIII, number 8, China Welfare Institute, ISSN 0009-4447, OCLC 1554324, page 64, column 1:
- HUANG DI, the legendary Yellow Emperor to whom is attributed the founding of the Chinese nation about 2000 B.C., is said to have been buried on the loess plateau. There is a tomb in Shaanxi province’s Huangling county which has long been honored as his.
- 1984, Pan Jiang (P'an Kiang), “The Phylogenetic Position of the Eugaleaspida in China”, in Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, volume 107, ISSN 0370-047X, OCLC 1755950, page 311:
- Relevant new discoveries in China, not yet described, include polybranchiaspids and hanyangaspids which were recently (1981-82) recovered from an Early Silurian formation in western Hunan Province of south China, and in southern Shaanxi Province, west China.
- For more quotations using this term, see Citations:Shaanxi.