User:Sobreira/PIE roots h

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Contents

h₁ed- (#h₁ed-) h₁egʷʰ- (#h₁egʷʰ-) h₁eḱ- (#h₁eḱ-) h₁es- (#h₁es-) h₁ews- (#h₁ews-) h₁ey- (#h₁ey-) h₁eyH- (#h₁eyH-) h₁lengʰ- (#h₁lengʰ-) h₁lengʷʰ- (#h₁lengʷʰ-) h₁lewdʰ- (#h₁lewdʰ-) h₁rebʰ- (#h₁rebʰ-) h₁reh₁- (#h₁reh₁-) h₁rem- (#h₁rem-) h₁rewdʰ- (#h₁rewdʰ-) h₁rewg- (#h₁rewg-) h₁wegʷʰ- (#h₁wegʷʰ-) h₁weh₂- (#h₁weh₂-) h₁wer- (#h₁wer-) h₂eǵ- (#h₂eǵ-) h₂egʰ- (#h₂egʰ-) h₂eHs- (#h₂eHs-) h₂eḱ- (#h₂eḱ-) h₂eḱs- (#h₂eḱs-) h₂el- (#h₂el-) h₂enǵʰ- (#h₂enǵʰ-) h₂enh₁- (#h₂enh₁-) h₂enk- (#h₂enk-) h₂ent- (#h₂ent-) h₂ep- (#h₂ep-) h₂er- (#h₂er-) h₂erǵ- (#h₂erǵ-) h₂erh₃- (#h₂erh₃-) h₂erHdʰ- (#h₂erHdʰ-) h₂erk- (#h₂erk-) h₂ew- (#h₂ew-) h₂ewg- (#h₂ewg-) h₂ews- (#h₂ews-) h₂ey- (#h₂ey-) h₂eydʰ- (#h₂eydʰ-) h₂eyḱ- (#h₂eyḱ-) h₂eys- (#h₂eys-) h₂lek- (#h₂lek-) h₂leyH- (#h₂leyH-) h₂melǵ- (#h₂melǵ-) h₂neḱ- (#h₂neḱ-) h₂weg- (#h₂weg-) h₂weh₁- (#h₂weh₁-) h₂wes- (#h₂wes-) h₂yew- (#h₂yew-) h₃ed- (#h₃ed-) h₃ekʷ- (#h₃ekʷ-) h₃elh₁- (#h₃elh₁-) h₃emh₃- (#h₃emh₃-) h₃engʷ- (#h₃engʷ-) h₃enh₂- (#h₃enh₂-) h₃ep- (#h₃ep-) h₃er- (#h₃er-) h₃erbʰ- (#h₃erbʰ-) h₃meyǵʰ- (#h₃meyǵʰ-) h₃nebʰ- (#h₃nebʰ-) h₃negʰ- (#h₃negʰ-) h₃reǵ- (#h₃reǵ-) h₃yebʰ- (#h₃yebʰ-) Heh₃l- (#Heh₃l-) Hreh₁dʰ- (#Hreh₁dʰ-) HrewdH- (#HrewdH-) Hrewp- (#Hrewp-) Hyekʷ- (#Hyekʷ-)

H[edit]

h₁ed-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)[1]

  1. to eat

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁éd-ti ~ *h₁d-énti (athematic root present)
  • *h₁od-éye- (causative)
    • Germanic: *atjaną (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₁ōd-e/o- (a lengthened grade of disputed origin)[2]
  • *h₁ēd-so-
    • Germanic: *ēsaz (food, carrion, bait)
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: yats (skin)
      • Tocharian B: yetse (skin)
  • *h₂eyeri-d-to-
  • Unsorted formations:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 644

h₁egʷʰ-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to drink

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁égʷʰ-ti ~ *h₁gʷʰ-énti (athematic root present) or *h₁ḗgʷʰ-ti ~ *h₁égʷʰ-n̥ti (athematic Narten root present)
  • *h₁ēgʷʰ-rios
    • Italic:

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₁eḱ-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. horse
  2. swift?

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


h₁es-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)[1]

  1. to be

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag

h₁ews-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)[1][2]

  1. to burn

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁éws-e-ti (thematic root present)[3]
  • (perhaps) *h₁us-néh₂-ti ~ *h₁us-n̥h₂-énti (*néh₂-present)[4]
  • *h₁ḗwst ~ *h₁éws-n̥t (*s-aorist)
  • *h₁us-nós
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₁us-tós

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “eus-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 347-348
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₁eu̯s-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 245
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ūrō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 645
  4. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*uznan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 563

h₁ey-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)[1]

  1. to go

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

h₁eyH-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2][3][4]

  1. ice, frost

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 287a
  2. 2.0 2.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*jь̀nьjь; *jь̀nьje”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 213
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*īsa-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 271
  4. 4.0 4.1 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 252

h₁lengʰ-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h or *h₁lenǵʰ-[1]

  1. to revile?

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁lengʰ- (root present)
    • Anatolian:
    • Germanic:
      • Old High German: antlingen (I answer)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἐλέγχω (elénkhō, I revile, disgrace)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “405”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 1
  2. ^ Alwin Kloekhorst (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon, Leiden, Boston: Brill Academic Publishers

h₁lengʷʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. light (not heavy)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₁lengʷʰ-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, pages 243-245
  2. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*leng-o-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, pages 237-238
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*lingwan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 338-339
  4. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007), “*Hranǰ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-15496-4, pages 191-192

Further reading[edit]

h₁lewdʰ-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2][3]

  1. to grow
  2. people[4]

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “6. el-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 306-307
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1. leudh- of 684-685
  3. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₁leu̯dʰ-¹”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, pages 248-249
  4. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 190

h₁rebʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to roof
  2. rib

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁rébʰ-e- (thematic root present)
  • *h₁rebʰ-rom
    • Balto-Slavic: *rebra-
      • Slavic: *rebro (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₁rebʰ-yom
    • Germanic: *ribją (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₁reh₁-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*h₁reh₁- ~ *h₁erh₁-[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

  1. to row

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (row) not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 338
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 251 of 251, 252
  3. 3.0 3.1 Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, pages 204–205
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἐρέτης”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 454
  5. 5.0 5.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 306
  6. 6.0 6.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “rēmus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 518-519
  7. 7.0 7.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ratis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 514-515
  8. 8.0 8.1 Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, page 203

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2][3][4]

  1. to separate
  2. loose, sparse, rare

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (separate) not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 332 of 332, 333
  2. 2.0 2.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*rědъkъ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 343
  3. 3.0 3.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἐρῆμος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 456-457
  4. 4.0 4.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “rēte / rētis”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 521


h₁rem-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. to rest

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₁rewdʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (adjectival)

  1. red

See also[edit]

Colors in Proto-Indo-European · (layout · text)
     *h₂elbʰós      (ash, hare)      *kr̥snós      (beaver)
                          *h₁rewdʰ-,                           *ǵʰelh₃-,
             *ǵʰelh₃-              (grass, plant)              {{{mint green}}}, {{{dark green}}}              ,
             (sky)              (water)              ,              ,

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


h₁rewg-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Onomatopoeic

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to belch
  2. to roar

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁ru-né-g-ti ~ *h₁ru-n-g-énti (nasal-infix present)
  • *h₁réwg-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • Unsorted formations:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 454

h₁wegʷʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to promise, to vow
  2. to praise

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₁wogʷʰ-éye-ti (causative)
  • *h₁wogʷʰ-ét ~ *h₁wogʷʰ-ónt (o-grade root thematic?)
With metathesized root *h₁ewgʰ-

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₁weh₂-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to leave, abandon, give out

Descendants[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 254
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “vacō, -āre”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 649-650
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “vānus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 653
  4. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, pages 403–404
  5. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “vāstus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 655-656

h₁wer-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. broad

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


h₂eǵ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)

  1. to drive

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  • Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₂eg̑-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 255f
  • Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008), “*h₂eg̑-”, in Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, pages 267-277
  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 4
  2. ^ Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195083458

h₂egʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. to be upset, afraid

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂eHs-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[3]

  1. to be/become dry
  2. to burn, to glow
  3. hearth
  4. ashes

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂eHs-eh₁-(ye)- (stative)[1]
  • *h₂s-tḗr (star)
  • *h₂eHs-h₂- (hearth, fireplace)[1]
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] c (ḫāššā-, fireplace, hearth)
      • Lycian: [script needed] c (xahadi-, altar)
    • Italic: *āzā (altar)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] c (ḫāšš-, ash(es); dust; soap)
    • Germanic:
      • Old High German: essa (ash)
      • Old Norse: [Runic needed] (aʀina, ash)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: आस (ā́sa-, ashes, dust)
      • Iranian:
        • Ormuri: [script needed] (yānak, ash) < *ās-naka-
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: asatär (dries up)
      • Tocharian B: osotär (dries up)
  • enlarged with a dental
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (hāt-i) / [script needed] (hat-, to dry up, become parched)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: հաստեայ (hasteay, kind of pastry) (possibly)
      • Old Armenian: ոստին (ostin, dry) (possibly)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Czech: ozditi (to dry malt)
      • Old Polish: ozd (dry malt)
    • Celtic: *ātis (furnace, oven)
      • Old Irish: áith (furnace, oven)
        • Irish: áith (drying kiln)
      • Middle Welsh: odyn (kiln)
        • Welsh: odyn (kiln)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἄζω (ázō, to dry)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian:
        • Khotanese: [script needed] (astaucä, dry land)
        • → Old Armenian: աստուճ (astuč, dry (of bread))
    • Italic: *asso- (dried, roasted)
      • Latin: assus (roasted, baked)
  • enlarged with a velar
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: աճիւն (ačiwn, ashes)
      • Old Armenian: ազազիմ (azazim, to grow dry)
      • Old Armenian: ասկն (askn, ruby) (possibly)
    • Germanic: (possibly) *askǭ (ash, ashes) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic:
    • → Finnic: *kaski (swidden)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 49, 53, 58f
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, pages 257–258
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 68–69

h₂eḱ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. sharp

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*agiþō-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 4
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “occa”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 423
  3. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*oketā”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 297
  4. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*esetь”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 145
  5. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “akėčios”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, pages 46-47

h₂eḱs-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *h₂eǵ- (to drive).[1]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. axis, axle

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂eḱs-is
  • *h₂eḱs-os
  • *h₂eḱs-eh₂
    • Germanic: *ahsō (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂eḱs-ō ~ *h₂eḱs-on-
  • *h₂eḱs-(e)l-
    • Germanic: *ahslō (shoulder) (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 4

h₂el-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)

  1. to grow, nourish

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (grow) not found


Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. beyond, other

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (other) not found


References[edit]

  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195083458
  • Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag

h₂enǵʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. narrow, tight
  2. to constrict, tighten, compress

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂énǵʰ-e-ti (thematic root present)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἄγχω (ánkhō, I compress, strangle)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: angō (I cause pain)
  • *h₂énǵʰ-u-s ~ *h₂n̥ǵʰ-éw-s
  • *h₂enǵʰ-us-t-
    • Germanic: *angustiz (narrowness, tightness, anxiety) (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: angustus (narrow, close) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Old Armenian: անձաւ (anjaw)
    • Germanic: *angazaz (worry, grief, anxiety) (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂enh₁-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. to breathe

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂enk-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

  1. curve, bend

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 45-46
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₂enk-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 268
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  5. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “anka”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, page 56
  6. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*ǫkotь”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 386
  7. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ὄγκος 1”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 1045
  8. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “angɫ₁”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 70-71
  9. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 84

h₂ent-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. face
  2. forehead
  3. front

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


h₂ep-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. water, body of water

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • Unsorted formations:

See also[edit]

h₂er-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to fit, to fix, to put together

Extensions[edit]

*h₂erh₁-
  • *h₂r̥h₁-sḱé-ti
  • *h₂r̥-h₂r̥h₁-sḱé-ti
  • *h₂r̥h₁-téh₂
*h₂rey-
  • *h₂réy-tus
  • *h₂ri-dʰ-mó-s
*h₂erd-
  • *h₂or-d-h₃onh₂-

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

h₂erǵ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. white, argent
  2. glittering

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008), “*h₂erg̑-”, in Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, pages 317-322
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “akra- 2”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 18: “h₂reǵ-ro-”
  5. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003), “*arganto-”, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, ISBN 978-2877722377, page 41

h₂erh₃-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to plough

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  • Wikander, Ola (2008) Ett träd med vida grenar: de indoeuropeiska språkens historia (in Swedish), Stockholm: Prisma, ISBN 978-91-518-5139-6

h₂erHdʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. high
  2. to grow

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂erk-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)[1][2]

  1. to hold

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “areq-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 65-66
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₂erk-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 273
  3. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “ḫar(k)-zi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 355-357
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “arceō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 51
  5. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*fargjan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 128-129
  6. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010), “argel”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 133-134

h₂ew-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to enjoy
  2. to consume

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (enjoy) not found


Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to perceive, see, to be aware of

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (perceive) not found


References[edit]

  • Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag

h₂ewg-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *h₂weg-, of which the zero grade *h₂ug- was reanalysed as having the ablaut vowel before the -w- rather than after it, creating a new variant form of the root. The original root remained in use, however.

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to increase, to enlarge

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  • Rastorgujeva, V. S.; Edelʹman, D. I. (2000) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume I, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 258
  • Mayrhofer, Manfred (1992) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), volume I, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 278

h₂ews-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. dawn
  2. east

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂éws-ōs ~ *h₂us-
  • *h₂us-r-
  • *h₂us-ró-
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: उस्र (usrá-, reddish, ruddy; bright; matutinal)
  • *h₂ews-ro-
    • Albanian: *ausra
      • Albanian: err
    • Balto-Slavic: *auš(t)ra-
      • Latvian: àustra
      • Lithuanian: aušrà
      • Slavic: *utro (with unexpected loss of -s-, present in variant *ustro) (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *austraz (east), *Austrǭ (Easter, springtime; name of a goddess) (with regular epenthesis *sr > *str) (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic: *aúhrā (< *h₂éwsreh₂)
    • Italic: aurora (dawn)
  • *h₂ews-teros
  • *h₂us-es-tero-
  • *h₂ewsḗr (< **h₂ews-ér-s, or *h₂us-s-ḗr "what is at dawn; mist" from locative *h₂us-s-ér(i) "at dawn" from *h₂éwsōs[2])
    • Hellenic: *auhḗr
      • Ancient Greek: ᾱ̓ήρ (āḗr)
        Doric Greek: ἀβήρ (abḗr)
        Aeolic Greek: αὐήρ (auḗr)
        Ionic Greek: ἠήρ (ēḗr)
        • → Ancient Greek: αὔριον (aúrion) (< locative *αὔρι (*aúri) < *h₂éwsri)
        • → Ancient Greek: ἦρι (êri, early in the morning) (< locative *h₂éwsri or *h₂ewséri, compare ἠέριος (ēérios, with the early morning))
  • *h₂wōsrih₂

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ Nikolaev, Alexander (Fall/Winter 2009), “The Germanic word for ‘sword’ and delocatival derivation in Proto-Indo-European”, in The Journal of Indo-European Studies[1] (PDF), volume 37, issue 3/4, page 466
  3. ^ Zimmer, Stefan (2006), “Some Names and Epithets in Culhwch ac Olwen”, in Studi Celtici[2], volume 3, retrieved 13 January 2016, pages 163–179 (See p. 11 in the online version.)

h₂ey-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. vital force, life, age, eternity

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂eydʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[2][3][4]

  1. to ignite
  2. fire

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂i-n-dʰ-tór ~ *h₂i-n-dʰ-rór (mediopassive nasal-infix imperfective)
  • *h₂éydʰ-e-ti (root present)
    • Hellenic:
    • (perhaps) Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₂oydʰ-éye-ti (causative)
  • *h₂éydʰ-o-s
  • *h₂éydʰ-os ~ *h₂éydʰ-es-
  • *h₂éydʰ-lom
    • Germanic: *ailą (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂éydʰ-teh₂t-s
  • *h₂éydʰ-tu-s ~ *h₂idʰ-téw-s
  • *h₂idʰ-tó-s
  • Unsorted formations:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₂ei̯dʰ-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 259
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  4. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂eyḱ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to possess, to own

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂eys-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[2][3][4]

  1. to wish
  2. to request

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  4. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6

h₂lek-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to protect

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂lék-se-ti (se-present)
  • *h₂elk-éh₂-(ye)-ti (with schwebeablaut)
    • Germanic: *algōną (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₂elk-s (sacred place, sanctuary; idol)
    • Germanic: *alhs (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

h₂leyH-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to smear

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “linō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂melǵ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to milk
  2. milk

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂mélǵ-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • *h₂molǵ-éye-ti (iterative)
    • Italic:
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Albanian: mjel (to milk)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: malks (sip, nip, swig)
      • Lithuanian: malkas
    • Celtic:
      • Middle Irish: bligim (I milk)
      • Middle Irish: melg (milk)
    • Celtic: *mliktu (< *ml̥ǵtu)
    • Germanic: *meluks (milk) (with unexplained -u-)
      • → Slavic: *melko (milk) (possibly)
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian A: malke (milk), mālk- (to milk) (< *h₂melǵ-ei̯e)
      • Tocharian B: malkwer (milk), mālkant (to milk)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

h₂neḱ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (perfective)[1][2][3]

  1. to reach, to attain

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₂weg-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to increase, to enlarge

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 170

h₂weh₁-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (imperfective)[1]

  1. to blow (of wind)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  • Julius Pokorny (1959), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, in 3 vols, Bern, München: Francke Verlag

h₂wes-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to dwell, live, reside
  2. to stay, spend the night

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂wés-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • *h₂wés-ti ~ *h₂us-énti (athematic root present)
    • Hittite: [script needed] (ḫuišzi)[2]
  • *h₂(w)e-h₂wós-e ~ *h₂(w)e-h₂us-ḗr (stative)
  • *h₂í-h₂ews-e-ti (post-PIE reduplicated present with schwebeablaut)
  • *h₂wós-e-ti
    • Celtic: *woseti (see there for further descendants)
    • Tocharian:
      • Tocharian B: wäs- (to stay, to wait)
  • *h₂wés-ti-s ~ *h₂us-téy-s
    • Germanic: *wistiz (essence, nature)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: 𒄷𒍑 (ḫu-uš)
      • Luwian: Hieroglyphic: [script needed] (hwisar, game, wild beasts)
    • Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: ագանիմ (aganim, to spend the night), գոյ (goy, being, existence; God), գոմ (gom, to exist)
    • Hellenic: [Term?]
      • Ancient Greek: ἄεσα (áesa, to pass the night)[3]
    • Italic:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 353-354
  3. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἄεσα”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 25

h₂yew-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Back-formation from the noun *h₂óyu ~ *h₂yéw-, from the root *h₂ey- (vital force, life).[1]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. justice, law

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₃ed-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2][3][4][5]

  1. to smell, stink

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (smell) not found


Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][6]

  1. to hate

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h (hate) not found


Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to bite, uncertain reconstruction as the past participle *h₃dónts (tooth).

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, page 296
  2. 2.0 2.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*adati”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 26
  3. 3.0 3.1 Derksen, Rick (2015), “uosti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, page 482
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “odor”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 425-426
  5. 5.0 5.1 Demiraj, Bardhyl (1997), “ãmë”, in Albanische Etymologien: Untersuchungen zum albanischen Erbwortschatz [Albanian Etymologies: Investigaitons into the Albanian Inherited Lexicon] (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 7) (in German), Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi, page 76
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*atjan- 1”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 39


h₃ekʷ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to see
  2. eye

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


See also[edit]

References[edit]

h₃elh₁-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to fall, to collapse
  2. to destroy/be destroyed

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₂p-h₃olh₁-
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (hu-ul-la-a-i, he defeated, destroyed)
    • Armenian:
    • Celtic:
      • Brythonic:
        • Middle Breton: el-boet (hunger)
          • Breton: ol-buid (food shortage)
      • Old Irish: el-tes (tepidity) (possibly)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ὄλλυμι (óllumi, to wreck, to destroy, to lose; to go to waste, to be ruined, to be lost)
      • Ancient Greek: ὀλέκω (olékō, to ruin, destroy, kill)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 1069f
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Philippa, Marlies; Debrabandere, Frans; Quak, Arend; Schoonheim, Tanneke; van der Sijs, Nicoline (2003–2009), “vallen”, in Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands (in Dutch), Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₃emh₃-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to swear (an oath)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₃émh₃-ti ~ *h₃m̥h₃-énti (athematic root present)
  • *h₃m̥-né-h₃-ti ~ *h₃m̥-n-h₃-énti (nasal-infix present)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

h₃engʷ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. to smear, to anoint

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “unguō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 641-642
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Mažiulis, Vytautas (1988–1997), “anctan”, in Prūsų kalbos etimologijos žodynas [Etymology dictionary of the language of the Prussians] (in Lithuanian), Vilnius

h₃enh₂-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to onerate; to charge

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  • CLARKSON, James, Indo-European Word Formation: Proceedings from the International Conference, 2002

h₃ep-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to work, toil, make
  2. ability, force

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • Unsorted formations:
    • (perhaps) Albanian:
    • (perhaps) Armenian:
    • (perhaps) Germanic: *abnijaną (see there for further descendants)
    • (perhaps) Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ὄμπνη (ómpnē, nourishment)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: omnis (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*afla- 1”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 2
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ops”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 431
  3. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “ḫappina-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 346-347
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “opus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 432
  5. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “ḫāppar-”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 345-346

h₃er-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (perfective)[1][2][3]

  1. to move, to stir
  2. to rise, to spring

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*h₃er-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, ISBN 3-89500-219-4, pages 299-301
  2. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007), “*Har²”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-15496-4, pages 165-166
  3. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “arnu-zi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-16092-7, pages 248-249

h₃erbʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to change allegiance, status, ownership
  2. (Celtic, Germanic) inheritance (i.e. to change ownership)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₃erbʰ- (root present)
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (ḫarp-, to change allegiance or status)[1]
  • *h₃órbʰos
  • *h₃orbʰ-yo-m
    • Celtic: *orbyom (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *arbiją (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Germanic: *arbaidiz (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *arbijô (see there for further descendants)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hittite ḫarp(p)- and Derivatives". Investigationes Anatolicae: Gedenkschrift für Erich Neu, edited by J. Klinger, E. Rieken, C. Rüster.

h₃meyǵʰ-[edit]

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This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. to urinate

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1992), “*mižati”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 19, Moscow: Nauka, page 63
  4. ^ Olsen, Birgit Anette (1999) The noun in Biblical Armenian: origin and word-formation: with special emphasis on the Indo-European heritage (Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs; 119), Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter, page 207
  5. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W. (2010) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, second edition, Oxford: Blackwell, page 385
  6. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1994), “*mězga”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 21, Moscow: Nauka, page 179
  7. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1994), “*mьza”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 21, Moscow: Nauka, page 179
  8. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1994), “*mьzěti”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 21, Moscow: Nauka, page 179
  9. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1994), “*mьža”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 21, Moscow: Nauka, page 179
  10. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1994), “*mьžati II”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 21, Moscow: Nauka, page 179f
  11. ^ Trubačev O. N., editor (1994), “*mьžiti II”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 21, Moscow: Nauka, page 182f

h₃nebʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. hub
  2. navel

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₃nēbʰ-o- ~ *h₃nēbʰ-eh₂-
    • Armenian:
  • *h₃nobʰ-yom
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₃nobʰ-is
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₃nobʰ-eh₂
    • Balto-Slavic:
    • Germanic: *nabō (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₃m̥bʰ-l-os
  • *h₃m̥bʰ-Vl-īkos
  • *h₃m̥bʰ-el-yō
  • *h₃nobʰ-(V?)l-ō ~ *h₃nobʰ-(V?)l-en-

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 89–90

h₃negʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[2]

  1. (anatomy) nail

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₃nogʰ-l-os
    • Germanic: *naglaz (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₃n̥gʰ-l-(e)h₂
    • Italic:
      • Latin: ungula (see there for further descendants)
  • *h₃n̥gʰ-u-
    • Celtic: *angʷīnā (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic:
      • Latin: unguis (see there for further descendants)
  • *sh₃n̥gʰ-u-
  • Unsorted formations:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₃reǵ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1][2]

  1. to straighten, to right oneself
  2. right
  3. just

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₃réǵ-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • *h₃r̥-ne-ǵ-ti ~ *h₃r̥-n-ǵ-énti (nasal-infix present)
    • Germanic: *rankaz (upright) (derived from an unattested verb *rinkaną[2]) (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₃roǵ-éye-ti (causative)
  • *h₃rḗǵ-r- (order)
  • *h₃rḗǵ-s (king)
  • *h₃reǵ-tó-s (straightened, right)
  • *h₃réǵ-u-s ~ *h₃r̥ǵ-éw-s
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *h₃roǵ-o-s
    • Germanic: *rakaz
      • English: rake (trail, path)
    • Italic:
  • *h₃reǵ-dʰleh₂
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Latvian: redzēt (to see)
      • Lithuanian: règti (to begin to see)
      • Lithuanian: regė́ti (to see)
    • Celtic: *rextus
      • Brythonic:
        • Welsh: rhaith (law)
        • Breton: reiz (law, order)
      • Old Irish: recht
    • Germanic: *rekanōną (to count, to calculate) (see there for further descendants)
    • Italic:

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill

h₃yebʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally meant "to enter, penetrate" with a semantic narrowing to "copulate". The original meaning can be seen in Luwian [script needed] (ipatarma-, west), [script needed] (iparwassa/i-, western) (< pre-form *ipa- (west, sunset)), Tocharian A yow- (to enter, set (of sun)). The semantic specialization was confined to the central and eastern parts of the IE speech community, and did not affect either Tocharian or Anatolian, and has left no trace in the West IE.

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. to copulate

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


  • *h₃yébʰ-e-ti (thematic root present)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Iranian:
        • Sogdian: ʾyʾmp (ā-yamb-, to pervert, to seduce, to deceive)

References[edit]

Heh₃l-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[1]

  1. to bow, to bend; elbow

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “ulna”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 638

External sources[edit]

  • Pokorny, Julius (1959), “⁸el-, elē̆i-, lē̆i-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume I, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 307 of 307, 308
  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ὠλένη”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 1678–1679

Hreh₁dʰ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Possible extension of *h₂reh₁- (to think; to count) +‎ *-dʰh₁-.[1]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[2]

  1. to think
  2. to arrange
  3. to succeed, accomplish[3]

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*rōdjan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 415
  2. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007), “*(H)raHd”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-15496-4, page 187
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*rēdan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 408
  5. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003), “*rād-ī-”, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, ISBN 978-2877722377, page 305
  6. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2003), “*ambi-rād-ī-”, in Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, ISBN 978-2877722377, page 33
  7. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*raditi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, pages 432
  8. 8.0 8.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*radō-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 401: “*Hrh̥₁dʰ-eh₂”

HrewdH-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Alternative reconstructions[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h[4]

  1. to weep

Descendants[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “rydati”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 15504 6, page 441
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  4. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press

Hrewp-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Perhaps an extension of *Hrew- (to tear out, dig out).[1]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h (perfective)[2][3][4]

  1. to break

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found


References[edit]

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume III, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 868
  2. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  4. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

Hyekʷ-[edit]

Asterisk.svg
This entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*Sobreira/PIE roots h

  1. liver

Derived terms[edit]

Category Terms derived from the PIE root *PIE roots h not found