User:Tropylium/Finnish inherited vocabulary

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This page lists Finnish words with Proto-Finnic equivalents.

Preambles[edit]

For loanwords, whether they date to Proto-Finnic proper is not always clear. Source literature, such as the Finnish and Estonian etymological dictionaries, typically does not take a clear stance on this. I here reconstruct for Proto-Finnic

  1. all loanwords present also in Uralic languages spoken further east
  2. all loanwords from Baltic, Indo-Iranian, or their ancestors
  3. all loanwords from Proto-Germanic proper or its ancestors (i.e. showing an absense of Northwest Germanic innovations such as *ē > *ā or *u > *o)
  4. loanwords from North Germanic with a reflex in a Southern Finnic language, and showing an absense of Old Norse innovations such as *z > R > ∅
  5. as Proto-Northern Finnic: words with a reflex in Veps or Ludian, that do not originate from Samic or Russian.
    (Some Old Novgorodian or Proto-Slavic loans evidently date to Proto-Finnic, but for the most part they show distinctive phonetics, and are often also found in Southern Finnic.)

By internal chronology, several pan-Finnic innovations such as loss of palatalization, *d > *t and *š > *h appear to have occurred only after the initial division of Proto-Finnic into Inland Finnic (> South Estonian), Gulf of Riga Finnic (> Livonian) and Core Finnic (> all other Finnic varieties). However, with respect to these features, the reconstruction followed here is essentially that of Proto-Core Finnic.

∅-[edit]

A-[edit]

E-[edit]

I-[edit]

PF may have had *ji-, but in most cases this appears to be indistinguishable from *i-.

(…)

O-[edit]

U-[edit]

Ü-[edit]

Ä-[edit]

Ö-[edit]

H-[edit]

HA-[edit]

HE-[edit]

HI-[edit]

HO-[edit]

HU-[edit]

HÜ-[edit]

HÄ-[edit]

HÖ-[edit]

J-[edit]

JA-[edit]

JO-[edit]

JU-[edit]

JÜ-[edit]

JÄ-[edit]

K-[edit]

KA-[edit]

KE-[edit]

KI-[edit]

KO-[edit]

KU-[edit]

KÜ-[edit]

KÄ-[edit]

KÖ-[edit]

L-[edit]

LA-[edit]

LE-[edit]

LI-[edit]

LO-[edit]

LU-[edit]

LÜ-[edit]

LÄ-[edit]

LÖ-[edit]

M-[edit]

MA-[edit]

ME-[edit]

MI-[edit]

MO-[edit]

MU-[edit]

MÜ-[edit]

MÄ-[edit]

MÖ-[edit]

N-[edit]

NA-[edit]

NE-[edit]

NI-[edit]

NO-[edit]

NU-[edit]

NÜ-[edit]

NÄ-[edit]

NÖ-[edit]

P-[edit]

PA-[edit]

PE-[edit]

PI-[edit]

PO-[edit]

PU-[edit]

PÜ-[edit]

PÄ-[edit]

PÖ-[edit]

R-[edit]

RA-[edit]

RE-[edit]

RI-[edit]

RO-[edit]

RU-[edit]

RÜ-[edit]

RÄ-[edit]

RÖ-[edit]

S-[edit]

Note that PF *c is in most cases indistinguishable from *s by internal evidence, and is so treated here together with *s-.

SA-[edit]

SE-[edit]

SI-[edit]

SO-[edit]

SU-[edit]

SÜ-[edit]

SÄ-[edit]

SÖ-[edit]

ST-?[edit]

A single initial cluster has been proposed for PF to account for correspondences between Northern Finnic *s- and Southern Finnic *t-. (Most involved words are however loans; it seems still possible that they have simply been nativized in different fashion in the different proto-dialects.)

T-[edit]

TA-[edit]

TE-[edit]

TI-[edit]

TO-[edit]

TU-[edit]

TÜ-[edit]

TÄ-[edit]

TÖ-[edit]

V-[edit]

VA-[edit]

VE-[edit]

VI-[edit]

VO-[edit]

VÄ-[edit]

VÖ-[edit]