Wiktionary:About Bulgarian

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Accessories-text-editor.svg This is a Wiktionary policy, guideline or common practices page. Specifically it is a policy think tank, working to develop a formal policy.

This page is trying to provide a comprehensive guideline for any issues that arise in connection with the Bulgarian language, in particular Bulgarian words, in Wiktionary. It is mainly an instruction on how to format articles on Bulgarian words (more precisely, how to format the Bulgarian section of an entry).

Creating Bulgarian entries[edit]

The essentials[edit]

  1. Language header lets you know the language of the word in question (==Bulgarian==). It is almost always in a level two heading (See Wiktionary:How to edit a page for some basic terminology we use). When there is more than one language header on a page, the language headers should appear in alphabetical order with Translingual and English given priority. Do not use Castilian in the language header.
  2. Part of Speech header is the key descriptor for the grammatical function of the term in question (such as 'noun', 'verb', etc). The definitions themselves come within its scope. This heading is most frequently in a level three heading, and a page may have more than one for a single language.
  3. Part of Speech line is the line immediately following the part of speech header. It consists of the entry name in bold, the transliteration of the word, followed by the gender and number (for nouns and adjectives) or lexical aspect (for verbs).
  4. Definitions or Translations of the word appear as a numbered list in the part of speech section immediately following the headword line, though it is a good idea to include a blank line in between for ease of editing.

A very simple example[edit]

This is a simple entry for the word лекар, and shows the most fundamental elements of an article:

  1. the word’s language (as a level 2 heading),
  2. its part of speech or "type" (as a level 3 heading),
  3. the inflection word itself (using the correct Part of Speech template and the transliteration of the word),
  4. a definition (preceded by "#", which causes automatic numbering),
  5. and links in the definition or translation for key words.

This example can be copied and used to start an article or section of an article.



# [[physician]], [[doctor]]

Formatting Bulgarian entries[edit]

You are advised to read Wiktionary:Entry layout explained first. It sets forth the general formatting rules for pages, as well as those specific to the English language.

Preferred order of sections[edit]

The part of speech section will often include simple translation(s) into English in place of definitions, but there may be subsections.

Following is the preferred sequence for these standard sections:

 ===Alternative forms===
 ====Usage notes====
 ====Inflection==== (''Note: Or Conjugation for verb entries'')
 ====Related terms====
 ===See also===

Please note that the Noun header is only one possible part of speech that may appear as the header. If the entry being created is for a Bulgarian verb, then "Verb" should appear in place of the word "Noun" in the example above.

Alternative forms[edit]

It is used only for words that have alternative forms such as обед and обяд or жираф and жирафа.


A typical pronunciation section may look like the following example based on the word автомобил:

* {{IPA|/əftomo'bil/|lang=bg}}


Some unstressed vowels are pronounced differently from their stressed counterparts.

Vowel Stressed Example Unstressed Example
<а> /a/ баба /'babə/ /ə/ баба /'babə/
<ъ> /ɤ/ мъж /mɤʃ/ /ə/ мъжът /mə'ʒɤt/
<о> /ɔ/ око /o'kɔ/ /o/ око /o'kɔ/
<у> /u/ уча /'utʃə/ /u/ уста /u'sta/
<е> /ɛ/ дете /dɛ'tɛ/ /ɛ/ дете /dɛ'tɛ/
<и> /i/ живи /'ʒivi/ /i/ живи /'ʒivi/


Voiced Voicless Examples
Hard Soft Hard Soft
/b/ /bʲ/ /p/ /pʲ/ бор /bɔr/ бял /aɫ/ пор /pɔr/ пял /aɫ/
/v/ /vʲ/ /f/ /fʲ/ вал /vaɫ/ вял /aɫ/ фон /fɔn/ фьон /ɔn/
/g/ /gʲ/ /k/ /kʲ/ гол /gɔɫ/ гьол /ɔɫ/ куп /kup/ кюп /up/
/d̪/ /dʲ/ /t̪/ /tʲ/ дал /aɫ/ дял /aɫ/ та /a/ тя /a/
/ʒ/ - /ʃ/ - жило /ʒiɫo/ - шило /ʃiɫo/ -
/z/ /zʲ/ /s/ /sʲ/ тормоза /t̪or'mɔzə/ тормозя /t̪or'mɔə/ сал /saɫ/ сял /aɫ/
/l/ /lʲ/ - - лек /lɛk/ люк /uk/ - -
/ɫ/ - - - лук /ɫuk/ - - -
/m/ /mʲ/ - - дима /d̪i'mɤ/ димя /d̪i'ɤ/ - -
/n/ /nʲ/ - - звъна /zvə'nɤ/ звъня /zvə'ɤ/ - -
/r/ /rʲ/ - - пора /'pɔrə/ поря /'pɔə/ - -
- - /x/ /xʲ/ - - хубав /'xubəf/ Хюстън /'ust̪ən/
/dz/ /dzʲ/ /ts/ /tsʲ/ Дзержински /dzɛr'ʒinskʲi/ Ядзя /'jadzʲə/ цар /tsar/ цяр /tsʲar/
/dʒ/ - /tʃ/ - джанта /'ant̪ə/ - чанта /'ant̪ə/ -

Palatalization is denoted by the symbol /ʲ/ after the soft consonant, which is different from the symbol /j/, used for the semivowel й.

The consonants /k/, /g/ and /x/ are always palatalized before /ɛ/ and /i/:

  • геврек - /ɛv'rɛk/ (not /gɛv'rɛk/)
  • киви - /'ivi/
  • хем - /ɛm/
Final obstruent devoicing[edit]

Аll voiced consonants at the end of the word are pronounced like their voiceless counterparts. Here are some examples:

  • град - /gra/ (not /gra/)
  • молив - /'mɔlif/
  • гръб - /grɤp/
  • мъж - /mɤʃ/

Whenever two or more consonants that participate in the opposition voiced : voiceless occur next to each other, the final consonant influences the voicing of the whole consonant cluster. This means that if the final consonant is voiced - the whole lot becomes voiced, and vice versa - if the final consonant is voiceless, all will be voiceless. Here are some examples:

  • градски - /'graskʲi/ (not /graskʲi/)
  • робски - /'rɔpskʲi/
  • мъжки - /'mɤʃkʲi/
  • сграда - /'zgrad̪ə/
  • сватба - /'svabə/

The sonorants /l/, /ɫ/, /m/, /n/, /r/ and the consonant /v/ do not influence the voicing of the neighbouring consonants. Examples:

  • вълшебство - /vəɫ'ʃɛpst̪vo/ (not /vəɫ'ʃɛbzd̪vo/)
  • песни - /'pɛsni/ (not /'pɛzni/)

In complex consonant clusters the consonants /t/ and /d/ are omitted:

  • честно - /'tʃɛsno/ (not /'tʃɛst̪no/)
  • вестник - /'vɛsnik/
  • щастлив - /ʃt̪əs'lif/
  • дъжд - /d̪ɤʃ/


The semivowel /j/ is represented by the letters ю, я, when preceded by a vowel or at the beginning of a word, and by the letter й:

  • ютия - /ju't̪i/
  • плюя - /'plʲu/
  • йод - /jɔt̪/

Part of Speech line[edit]

This line contains Template:head. It has the following parameteres:

  • the first parameters is the language of the word (in this case bg: {{head|bg}});
  • the second parameter is the lexical category of the word (noun, verb, etc.: {{head|bg|noun}}, {{head|bg|adjective}}, {{head|bg|verb}}, etc.);
  • g= indicates the gender of the word, if it belongs to any (verbs, for example, don't belong to any gender). g=m is for masculine, g=f for feminine, g=n for neuter;
  • tr= is the transliteration of the word. For more information see Transliteration of Bulgarian.

For verb entries, apart from the headword-line template, this line also includes the lexical aspect of the verb ({{g|impf}} for imperfective verbs and {{g|pf}} for perfective verbs) followed by its aspect counterpart, if it has one, the transliteration of the counterpart and its aspect.


  • {{head|bg|noun|g=m|tr=sǎprúg}} for the masculine noun съпруг
  • {{head|bg|noun|g=f|tr=sǎprúga}} for the feminine noun съпруга
  • {{head|bg|noun|g=n|tr=deté}} for the neuter noun дете
  • {{head|bg|adjective|g=m|tr=bǎrz}} for the masculine form of the adjective бърз
  • {{head|bg|adverb|tr=tuk}} for the adverb тук
  • {{head|bg|verb|tr=píša|g=impf}} for the imperfective verb пиша
  • {{head|bg|verb|tr=vljáza|g=pf}}, [[влизам]] (vlízam) {{g|impf}} for the perfective verb вляза with imperfective counterpart влизам
  • {{head|bg|verb|tr=vlízam|g=impf}}, [[вляза]] (vljáza) {{g|pf}} for the imperfective verb влизам with perfective counterpart вляза

Inflection and conjugation templates[edit]

Inflection (for nouns and adjectives) and conjugation (for verbs) templates are placed immediately after the Inflection/Conjugation header. They provide a paradigm for the word.


Masculine nouns[edit]
Feminine nouns[edit]
Neuter nouns[edit]