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Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English abraiden, abreiden ‎(to start up, awake, move, reproach), from Old English ābreġdan ‎(to move quickly, vibrate, draw, draw from, remove, unsheath, wrench, pull out, withdraw, take away, draw back, free from, draw up, raise, lift up, start up), from Proto-Germanic *uz- ‎(out) + *bregdaną ‎(to move, swing), from Proto-Indo-European *bhrēḱ-, *bhrēǵ- ‎(to shine), equivalent to a- +‎ braid. Related to Dutch breien ‎(to knit), German bretten ‎(to knit).

Alternative forms[edit]


abraid ‎(third-person singular simple present abraids, present participle abraiding, simple past and past participle abraided or abraid)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To wrench (something) out. [10th-13thc.]
  2. (intransitive, obsolete) To wake up. [11th-18thc.]
  3. (intransitive, archaic) To spring, start, make a sudden movement. [from 11thc.]
  4. (intransitive, transitive, obsolete) To shout out. [15th-16thc.]
  5. (transitive, obsolete) To rise in the stomach with nausea. [16th-19thc.]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English abrede. More at abread.


abraid ‎(comparative more abraid, superlative most abraid)

  1. Alternative form of abread


  • The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th edition





  1. (archaic, Munster) third-person plural present indicative dependent of abair
  2. (archaic, Munster) third-person plural present subjunctive of abair

Usage notes[edit]

The standard modern form is deir siad in the indicative and go ndeire siad in the subjunctive.


Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
abraid n-abraid habraid t-abraid
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.