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Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English abraiden, abreiden(to start up, awake, move, reproach), from Old English ābreġdan(to move quickly, vibrate, draw, draw from, remove, unsheath, wrench, pull out, withdraw, take away, draw back, free from, draw up, raise, lift up, start up), from Proto-Germanic *uz-(out) + *bregdaną(to move, swing), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēḱ-, *bʰrēǵ-(to shine), equivalent to a- +‎ braid. Related to Dutch breien(to knit), German bretten(to knit).

Alternative forms[edit]


abraid (third-person singular simple present abraids, present participle abraiding, simple past and past participle abraided or abraid)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To wrench (something) out. [10th-13thc.]
  2. (intransitive, obsolete) To wake up. [11th-18thc.]
  3. (intransitive, archaic) To spring, start, make a sudden movement. [from 11thc.]
  4. (intransitive, transitive, obsolete) To shout out. [15th-16thc.]
  5. (transitive, obsolete) To rise in the stomach with nausea. [16th-19thc.]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English abrede. More at abread.


abraid (comparative more abraid, superlative most abraid)

  1. Alternative form of abread


  • The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th edition





  1. (archaic, Munster) third-person plural present indicative dependent and present subjunctive of abair

Usage notes[edit]

The standard modern form is deir siad in the indicative and go ndeire siad in the subjunctive.


Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
abraid n-abraid habraid unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.