arbor

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See also: Arbor and árbor

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɑː(r)bə(r)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English arbour, erbour, from Old French erbier (field, meadow, kitchen garden), from erbe (grass, herb), from Latin herba (grass, herb) (English herb). (Compare Late Latin herbārium, although erbier is possibly an independent formation.) The spelling was influenced by Latin arbor (tree).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

arbor (plural arbors or arbores)

  1. A shady sitting place or pergola usually in a park or garden, surrounded by climbing shrubs, vines or other vegetation.
  2. A grove of trees.
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from French arbre (tree, axis), spelling influenced by Latin arbor (tree).

Noun[edit]

arbor (plural arbors or arbores)

  1. An axis or shaft supporting a rotating part on a lathe.
  2. A bar for supporting cutting tools.
  3. A spindle of a wheel.
Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Latin[edit]

arbor (a tree)

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

By rhotacism from Old Latin arbōs, from Proto-Italic *arðōs, cognate with arduus (high): the meaning is "high plant"; the Indo-European /dʰ/ was shifted to /b/. From the Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰ- (high, to grow).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

arbor f (genitive arboris); third declension

  1. a tree
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 10:
      Interea genitor Tiberini ad fluminis undam / uulnera siccabat lymphis corpusque leuabat / arboris acclinis trunco
      Meantime, his father at Tiber's flowing stream bathed his wounds in the clear water and his body leant against the trunk of a tree.
    felix arbora fruit-bearing tree
    arbores serereto plant trees
    (specifically with the genitive of the species)
    arbor alnian alder tree
    arbores ficorumfig trees
  2. (metonymically) something made from a tree, of wood
    arbore malithe mast (of a ship)
    Synonym: mālus
    centenaque arbore fluctum verberat adsurgensan oar
    Pelias arborPelias's ship, the ship Argo
    (please add the primary text of this usage example)the shaft of a javelin, a javelin
    Synonyms: iaculum, pīlum
    (please add the primary text of this usage example)the lever or bar of a press, press-beam
    (euphemistic) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    arbor infelixa gallows, gibbet
  3. (metonymically) the polypus (imagined to have arms like the branches of a tree)
  4. vocative singular of arbor

Declension[edit]

  • A poetic nominative arbōs is often found. Sextus Pompeius Festus documents archaic (Old Latin) variants arbosem, arboses.

Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative arbor arborēs
Genitive arboris arborum
Dative arborī arboribus
Accusative arborem arborēs
Ablative arbore arboribus
Vocative arbor arborēs

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  • arbor in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • arbor in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • arbor in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • arbor in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the vegetable kingdom: arbores stirpesque, herbae stirpesque (De Fin. 5. 11. 33)
    • the trees are coming into leaf: arbores frondescunt
    • to plant trees: arbores serere (De Sen. 7. 24)
    • to fell trees: arbores caedere

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *arawar, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂erh₃-.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

arbor n (genitive arbae, nominative plural arbann)

  1. grain
  2. (in the plural) crops

Inflection[edit]

Neuter n-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative arbor arbanL
Vocative arbor arbanL
Accusative arbor arbanL
Genitive arbae arbanN
Dative arbaimL arbanaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Descendants[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
arbor unchanged n-arbor
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*arawar / *arawen-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 40

Old Spanish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin arbor, arborem, from Old Latin arbōs, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰ- (high, to grow).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

arbor m (plural arbores)

  1. tree
    • c. 1200, Almeric, Fazienda de Ultramar, f. 1v. b.
      ally delát ebró. es mót mãbre. e ouo y grát arbor. e fue enzina. ala rayz daq́l arbor estaua abraã.
      There, past Hebron, is the hill Mamre, where there was a great oak tree. Abraham was [sitting] on the root of that tree.
    • Idem, f. 42v. b.
      e crebantaredes todas cibdades en caſtelladas entodos los arbores fermoſos todas las fontanas del agua cerraredes. entodas las buenas seńas abatredes []
      And you shall defeat all cities and fortified towns, and fell all the good trees, and seal all the springs of water and ruin all the good pieces of land.

Descendants[edit]


Romanian[edit]

Noun[edit]

arbor m (plural arbori)

  1. Alternative form of arbore