arduus

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Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE root
*h₂erHdʰ-

From a Proto-Italic *arðwos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂erHdʰwós (whence also Old Irish ard and Welsh ardd), from *h₂erHdʰ- + *-wós (whence Latin -uus).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

arduus m ‎(feminine ardua, neuter arduum); first/second declension

  1. lofty, high, steep, tall, elevated
  2. hard to reach, difficult, laborious, arduous

Inflection[edit]

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative arduus ardua arduum arduī arduae ardua
genitive arduī arduae arduī arduōrum arduārum arduōrum
dative arduō arduō arduīs
accusative arduum arduam arduum arduōs arduās ardua
ablative arduō arduā arduō arduīs
vocative ardue ardua arduum arduī arduae ardua

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]