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From a Proto-Italic *arðwos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃erdʰwós, from *h₃erdʰ- + *-wós (whence Latin -uus). Cognate with Latin arbor (tree), Welsh ardd (high; hill), Old Irish ard (high; height), Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthós, upright, straight), Sanskrit ऊर्ध्व (ūrdhvá, rising upwards, high).



arduus (feminine ardua, neuter arduum); first/second-declension adjective

  1. lofty, high, steep, tall, elevated
  2. hard to reach, difficult, laborious, arduous
    Nihil mortalibus ardui est.
    Nothing is hard for mortals. (Horace)


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative arduus ardua arduum arduī arduae ardua
Genitive arduī arduae arduī arduōrum arduārum arduōrum
Dative arduō arduō arduīs
Accusative arduum arduam arduum arduōs arduās ardua
Ablative arduō arduā arduō arduīs
Vocative ardue ardua arduum arduī arduae ardua

Derived terms[edit]


  • Catalan: ardu
  • English: arduous
  • French: ardu
  • Galician: arduo, ardego
  • Italian: arduo
  • Portuguese: árduo
  • Spanish: arduo


  • arduus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • arduus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • arduus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.