ban

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bæn/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -æn

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English bannen (to summon; to bannish; to curse), partly from Old English bannan (to summon, command, proclaim, call out) and partly from Old Norse banna (to prohibit; to curse), both from Proto-Germanic *bannaną (to proclaim, to order; to summon; to ban; to curse, forbid), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰh₂-new-ti ~ bʰh₂-n̥w-énti, innovative nasal-infixed zero-grade athematic present of *bʰeh₂- (to say). Cognate with Dutch bannen (to ban, exile, discard), German bannen (to exile, to exorcise, captivate, excommunicate), Swedish banna (to ban, scold), Vedic Sanskrit भनति (bhánati), Armenian բան (ban) and perhaps Albanian banoj (to reside, dwell). See also banal, abandon.

Verb[edit]

ban (third-person singular simple present bans, present participle banning, simple past and past participle banned)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To summon; to call out.
  2. (transitive) To anathematize; to pronounce an ecclesiastical curse upon; to place under a ban.
  3. (transitive) To curse; to execrate.
    • (Can we find and add a quotation of Spenser to this entry?)
    • (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir Walter Scott to this entry?)
  4. (transitive) To prohibit; to interdict; to proscribe; to forbid or block from participation.
    • (Can we find and add a quotation of Byron to this entry?)
    • 2011 December 14, Steven Morris, “Devon woman jailed for 168 days for killing kitten in microwave”, in Guardian:
      Jailing her on Wednesday, magistrate Liz Clyne told Robins: "You have shown little remorse either for the death of the kitten or the trauma to your former friend Sarah Knutton." She was also banned from keeping animals for 10 years.
    • 2013 August 10, “A new prescription”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8848:
      No sooner has a [synthetic] drug been blacklisted than chemists adjust their recipe and start churning out a subtly different one. These “legal highs” are sold for the few months it takes the authorities to identify and ban them, and then the cycle begins again.
    Bare feet are banned in this establishment.
  5. (transitive) To curse; to utter curses or maledictions.
Synonyms[edit]
The terms below need to be checked and allocated to the definitions (senses) of the headword above. Each term should appear in the sense for which it is appropriate. Use the templates {{syn|en|...}} or {{ant|en|...}} to add them to the appropriate sense(s).
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban (plural bans)

  1. Prohibition.
    • 1667, John Milton, “Book IX”, in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: Printed [by Samuel Simmons], and are to be sold by Peter Parker [] [a]nd by Robert Boulter [] [a]nd Matthias Walker, [], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: The Text Exactly Reproduced from the First Edition of 1667: [], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [], 1873, OCLC 230729554:
      That sacred fruit, sacred to abstinence,
      Much more to taste it under ban to touch
  2. A public proclamation or edict; a summons by public proclamation. Chiefly, in early use, a summons to arms.
    Bans is common and ordinary amongst the Feudists, and signifies a proclamation, or any public notice.
  3. The gathering of the (French) king's vassals for war; the whole body of vassals so assembled, or liable to be summoned; originally, the same as arrière-ban: in the 16th c., French usage created a distinction between ban and arrière-ban, for which see the latter word.
    He has sent abroad to assemble his ban and arriere ban.
    The Ban and the Arrierban are met armed in the field to choose a king.
    France was at such a Pinch..that they call'd their Ban and Arriere Ban, the assembling whereof had been long discussed, and in a manner antiquated.
    The ban was sometimes convoked, that is, the possessors of the fiefs were called upon for military services.
    The act of calling together the vassals in armed array, was entitled ‘convoking the ban.
  4. (obsolete) A curse or anathema.
  5. A pecuniary mulct or penalty laid upon a delinquent for offending against a ban, such as a mulct paid to a bishop by one guilty of sacrilege or other crimes.
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Romanian ban of uncertain origin, perhaps from Serbo-Croatian bân.

Noun[edit]

ban (plural bani)

  1. A subdivision of currency, equal to one hundredth of a Romanian leu.
  2. A subdivision of currency, equal to one hundredth of a Moldovan leu.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Banburismus; coined by Alan Turing.

Noun[edit]

ban (plural bans)

  1. A unit measuring information or entropy based on base-ten logarithms, rather than the base-two logarithms that define the bit.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From South Slavic (compare Serbo-Croatian bȃn), from Proto-Slavic *banъ; see there for more.

Noun[edit]

ban (plural bans)

  1. A title used in several states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century.
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Bambara[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. to finish

References[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bans)

  1. ban (a public proclamation or edict)

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bans)

  1. ban (a title used in several states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century)
Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Dutch ban. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bannen)

  1. excommunication, denunciation
  2. anathema which is cast upon one who is excommunicated
  3. magic spell
  4. (historical) legal or feudal domain
  5. (historical) public declaration
  6. (archaic) exile
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from English ban.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bans)

  1. a revocation of permission to access or participate
    Synonym: toegangsverbod
    De forumgebruiker die zich heeft misdragen heeft een ban gekregen.
    The forum user that misbehaved has been given a ban.
Usage notes[edit]

Mostly common within internet communities.

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. first-person singular present indicative of bannen
  2. imperative of bannen

Etymology 4[edit]

See the etymology of the main entry.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. first-person singular present indicative of bannen
  2. imperative of bannen

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French ban, from Frankish *ban.

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bans)

  1. (dated) public declaration
  2. (dated) announcement of a marriage
  3. (East of France, Belgium) territory
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Serbo-Croatian bȃn. See English ban.

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bans)

  1. ban (nobleman)

Further reading[edit]


Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. give

Synonyms[edit]


Iberian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

ban

  1. A particle interpreted as the numeral 'one' by Eduardo Orduña and Joan Ferrer, and compared to Basque bat (one).

Further reading[edit]

  • Eduardo Orduña [Aznar], Los numerales ibéricos y el protovasco
  • Joan Ferrer i Jané, El sistema de numerales ibérico: avances en su conocimiento

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Dutch band. The physics sense is a semantic loan from English band (a part of the electromagnetic spectrum).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈban]
  • Hyphenation: ban

Noun[edit]

ban (plural, first-person possessive banku, second-person possessive banmu, third-person possessive bannya)

  1. tyre/tire
  2. tape
    Synonym: pita
  3. belt
    1. conveyor belt
    Synonym: sabuk
  4. (physics) band, a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (tyre/tire): tayar (Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore)

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Dutch baan.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈban]
  • Hyphenation: ban

Noun[edit]

ban (plural, first-person possessive banku, second-person possessive banmu, third-person possessive bannya)

  1. a road, way, path
  2. a track, lane
  3. (sports, ball games) court, field (place for playing sports or games, in particular non-team ball games)

Further reading[edit]


Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban f pl

  1. genitive plural of bean

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
ban bhan mban
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ban

  1. Rōmaji transcription of ばん
  2. Rōmaji transcription of バン

Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to Persian بام(bâm).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban ?

  1. roof

Maguindanao[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. sneeze

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ban

  1. Nonstandard spelling of bān.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of bǎn.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of bàn.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Mapudungun[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. death

Verb[edit]

ban (using Raguileo Alphabet)

  1. To die.
  2. first-person singular realis form of ban; I died; I have died.

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  • Wixaleyiñ: Mapucezugun-wigkazugun pici hemvlcijka (Wixaleyiñ: Small Mapudungun-Spanish dictionary), Beretta, Marta; Cañumil, Dario; Cañumil, Tulio, 2008.

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English bana.

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. Alternative form of bane

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English bān.

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. Alternative form of bon

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. imperative of bane (Etymology 3)

O'odham[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Southeastern Tepehuan bhan, Northern Tepehuan bánai.

Noun[edit]

ban (plural ba꞉ban)

  1. coyote

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *bainą. Cognate with Old Frisian bēn (West Frisian bien), Old Saxon bēn (Low German been, bein), Dutch been (bone, leg), Old High German bein (German Bein (leg)), Old Norse bein (Icelandic bein (bone)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bān n (nominative plural bān)

  1. bone

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle English: bon, ban, bone, bane, boon
    • English: bone
    • Geordie English: byen
    • Scots: bane, bean, bain
    • Yola: bane

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. genitive dual/plural of ben

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. first-person plural imperative of is

Alternative forms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ban ban
pronounced with /v(ʲ)-/
mban
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m anim

  1. ban (a subdivision of currency)
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from English ban.

Noun[edit]

ban m anim

  1. ban (on the Internet)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Serbo-Croatian ban, from Turkic.

Noun[edit]

ban m pers

  1. ban (title)
Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • ban in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Perhaps from Medieval Latin *bannus (communication), perhaps through a German intermediate.[1] Other theories derive the word from Proto-Slavic *banъ (master, lord) (via Serbo-Croatian or Hungarian). Ultimate Mongolian origin (баян (bajan, rich lord; plutocrat)) has also been proposed.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bani)

  1. money; coin

Usage notes[edit]

Usually used in the plural form, bani

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://webdex.ro/etimologic/ban
  2. ^ Romanian vocabulary. In: Haspelmath, M. & Tadmor, U. (eds.) World Loanword Database. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Late Proto-Slavic *banъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bȃn m (Cyrillic spelling ба̑н)

  1. ban (title)

Declension[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. (historical) branch of administration in the feudal court (of which there are two types: the civil administrators and the martial office holders)
  2. group (of people doing the same work); band; board; squad; committee
  3. shift; work period
  4. (only in compounds) time period; section of the day
    Synonym: buổi
  5. (dated) (college-level) subject; (academic) department

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

(classifier cây, hoa) ban

  1. orchid tree (Bauhinia variegata)

Etymology 3[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. (medicine) rash

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. (Central Vietnam) ball

Etymology 5[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. (colloquial) Alternative form of pan

Etymology 6[edit]

Sino-Vietnamese word from .

Verb[edit]

ban

  1. (archaic) to confer on; to bestow
  2. (archaic) to announce; to herald; to proclaim

Volapük[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French bain.

Noun[edit]

ban (nominative plural bans)

  1. bath

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Welsh bann, from Proto-Brythonic *bann, from Proto-Celtic *bandā.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban m (plural bannau or bannoedd)

  1. peak

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
ban fan man unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950-), “ban”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yagara[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ban

  1. dirty
  2. nasty
  3. very angry

References[edit]


Zazaki[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. dome, cupola
  2. room

Zou[edit]

Noun[edit]

ban

  1. arm

References[edit]