brak

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See also: brák, Brak, bräk, bråk, and břak

English

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Etymology

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This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Afrikaans brak?”

Adjective

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brak (comparative more brak, superlative most brak)

  1. (South Africa) Brackish.
    • 1995, Bill Sheat, Gerald Schofield, Complete Gardening in Southern Africa, page 437:
      Brak soils, which continue to be a subject of research, are unlikely to provide a major stumbling block [] However, brak conditions and their effects underline many of the principles of good soil management []

Noun

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brak (plural braks)

  1. (South Africa) A dog of mixed breed; a mongrel.

Anagrams

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Crimean Tatar

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Etymology

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Russian брак (brak), from German Brack (defective goods, defect, flaw).

Noun

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brak

  1. defect

Declension

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References

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  • Mirjejev, V. A., Usejinov, S. M. (2002) Ukrajinsʹko-krymsʹkotatarsʹkyj slovnyk [Ukrainian – Crimean Tatar Dictionary]‎[2], Simferopol: Dolya, →ISBN
  • brak”, in Luğatçıq (in Russian)

Czech

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Czech brak, from Middle Low German brak. Compare Polish brak.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈbrak]
  • Hyphenation: brak

Noun

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brak m inan

  1. trash, leftovers, refuse (what is designated as bad; what is is leftover after what is good is taken)

Declension

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Further reading

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  • brak in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • brak in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
  • brak in Internetová jazyková příručka

Dutch

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /brɑk/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Hyphenation: brak
  • Rhymes: -ɑk

Etymology 1

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From Middle Dutch brac. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Adjective

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brak (comparative brakker, superlative brakst)

  1. brackish
  2. (colloquial) bad
  3. (colloquial) hung over
Inflection
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Declension of brak
uninflected brak
inflected brakke
comparative brakker
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial brak brakker het brakst
het brakste
indefinite m./f. sing. brakke brakkere brakste
n. sing. brak brakker brakste
plural brakke brakkere brakste
definite brakke brakkere brakste
partitive braks brakkers
Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Papiamentu: brak
  • Sranan Tongo: brak

Etymology 2

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From Middle Dutch bracke. Compare German Bracke, French braque, English brach, Italian bracco, Spanish braco. This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Noun

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brak m or f (plural brakken, diminutive brakje n)

  1. hound, brach (of either sex)
    Synonym: jachthond

Etymology 3

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

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brak

  1. singular past indicative of breken

Anagrams

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Gothic

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Romanization

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brak

  1. Romanization of 𐌱𐍂𐌰𐌺

Icelandic

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Etymology

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From Old Norse brak.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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brak n (genitive singular braks, no plural)

  1. crash, din (sound of something breaking)
  2. wreckage, broken wood, etc.

Declension

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Derived terms

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Further reading

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Kashubian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Polish brak.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbrak/
  • Rhymes: -ak
  • Syllabification: brak

Noun

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brak m inan

  1. lack (non-existence of something)
    Synonym: niedostatk

Derived terms

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verbs

Further reading

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  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011) “brak”, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi[3], volume 1, page 117
  • brak”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Old Czech

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Middle Low German brak.[1] Compare Old Polish brak.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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brak m inan

  1. choice (what is taken n. selected from a group of individuals of the same kind)
  2. trash, leftovers, refuse (what is designated as bad; what is is leftover after what is good is taken)

Declension

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Descendants

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References

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  1. ^ Rejzek, Jiří (2015) “brak”, in Český etymologický slovník [Czech Etymological Dictionary] (in Czech), 3rd (revised and expanded) edition, Praha: LEDA, →ISBN

Old Polish

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Middle Low German brak. First attested in 1452. Compare Old Czech brak.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /brak/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /brak/

Noun

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brak m animacy unattested

  1. choice, selection
    • 1912-1930 [1452], Monumenta Iuris cura praepositorum Chartophylacio Maximo Varsoviensi, volume III, page 223:
      Hannus ... tenetur prouido Laurencio... sexagenarium al. sachczyg drzewa, hoc debet sibi presentare in Gdansko in prima aqua in prato sub eleccione al. pod brakem
      [Hannus ... tenetur prouido Laurencio... sexagenarium al. zachcyg drzewa, hoc debet sibi presentare in Gdansko in prima aqua in prato sub eleccione al. pod brakiem]

Derived terms

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verbs
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nouns

Descendants

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References

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Polish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish brak.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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brak m inan

  1. lack (non-existence of something) [+ w (locative) = in what]
  2. defect (fault or malfunction)
    Synonyms: defekt, feler, minus, niedostatek, wada
  3. faulty product (defective item that is the result of creation)
  4. (obsolete) choice; selection
    Synonym: wybór

Declension

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Derived terms

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adjectives

Trivia

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According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), brak (noun) is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 28 times in scientific texts, 19 times in news, 63 times in essays, 15 times in fiction, and 12 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 137 times, making it the 437th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

Verb

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brak impf (defective)

  1. (impersonal) there is/are no; to be wanting [+genitive = what there is not] [+dative = for/on whom]
    Synonym: brakować
    Na parkingu brak wolnych miejsc.There is no vacant space in the parking lot.

Conjugation

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Descendants

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References

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  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “brak (noun)”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 32

Further reading

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  • brak in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • brak in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “brak”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “brak”, in Słownik języka polskiego[4]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “brak”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[5]
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “brak”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 199
  • brak in Narodowy Fotokorpus Języka Polskiego

Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *borkъ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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brȃk m (Cyrillic spelling бра̑к)

  1. marriage

Declension

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Derived terms

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Silesian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish brak.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbrak/
  • Rhymes: -ak
  • Syllabification: brak

Noun

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brak m inan

  1. lack (non-existence of something)
    Synonym: niydostatek
  2. (Cieszyn Silesia) type, kind
    Synonyms: gatōnek, kategoryjŏ, typ, wariant, wariacyjŏ, zorta

Declension

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Derived terms

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verbs

Further reading

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Swedish

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Noun

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brak n

  1. a loud crashing sound like the sound of a large tree falling or a structure collapsing
    Trädet föll med ett brak
    The tree came down with a crash
    Ett brak hördes från vardagsrummet
    A loud crash was heard from the living room

Declension

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Declension of brak 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative brak braket brak braken
Genitive braks brakets braks brakens

Derived terms

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References

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Uzbek

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Etymology

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From Russian брак (brak), from Polish brak, from Middle Low German brak (flaw, defect; breaking).

Noun

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brak (plural braklar)

  1. reject, defective product

Declension

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* Note: The type of possessive is not specified.