From Middle English bruisen, brusen, brosen, brisen, bresen, from a merger of Old English brȳsan, brīesan (“to bruise; crush”), from Proto-Germanic *brausijaną, *brūsijaną (“to break; crumble; crack”), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰrews- (“to break”), which provided the current sense of the word; and Anglo-Norman bruiser, bruser (“to break, smash, shatter”), from Gaulish *brus- (compare Old Irish brúu (“I shatter, smash”)), from Proto-Celtic *bruseti (“to break”), from the same Proto-Indo-European root, which provided the form.
Cognate with Scots brizz, German brausen (“to roar; boom; pound”), Old English brosnian (“to crumble, fall apart”), Dutch broos (“brittle”), German Brosame (“crumb”), dialectal Norwegian brøysk (“breakable”), Latin frustum (“bit, scrap”), Old Church Slavonic бръснути (brŭsnuti, “to rake”), Albanian breshër (“hail”).
- (transitive) To strike (a person), originally with something flat or heavy, but now specifically in such a way as to discolour the skin without breaking it.
- (transitive) To damage the skin of (fruit), in an analogous way.
- (intransitive) Of fruit, to gain bruises through being handled roughly.
- Bananas bruise easily.
- (intransitive) To become bruised.
- I bruise easily.
- (intransitive) To fight with the fists; to box.
- Bruising was considered a fine, manly, old English custom.
bruise (plural bruises)
- (medicine) A purplish mark on the skin due to leakage of blood from capillaries under the surface that have been damaged by a blow.
- A dark mark on fruit caused by a blow to its surface.
bruise f sg
|Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.