cūka

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See also: cuka, čuka, and cūkā

Latvian[edit]

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 Mājas cūka on Latvian Wikipedia
Cūka

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *kyaw-, *kyū-, from a palatalized version (perhaps by onomatopeia, by imitating this animal's sound) of Proto-Indo-European *kew-, *kū- (to howl, to shout; cf. kaukt “to howl”). A parallel, non-palatalized version is probably reflected in placenames like Kūkas, perhaps originally a region with many wild boars. An even further palatalized version (where *ky > *ḱ > > Latvian s) may have given rise to placenames like Sauka, or, with a different suffix, to placenames in -saule like Jaunsaule, perhaps even to Lithuanian Šiauliaĩ. A different (minoritary) theory derives čūka from an earlier *sūka, borrowed from Slavic (cf. Russian сука (súka)); another (minoritary) viewpoint connects cūka (cūka) to imitative words used to call pigs, like Russian чух! (čux!), чух-чух! (čux-čux!), Belarusian, Ukrainian ацю! (acju!), Polish a ciu!, Latvian čuk-čuk!, Lithuanian čiùk-čiùk!, čiū́k-čiū́k! Cognates include Lithuanian dialectal čiūkà, kūkà, also čiūkùtis, kūkùtis (piglet), Russian dialectal чуха (čúxa), чухна (čuxná, pig).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

(file)

Noun[edit]

cūka f (4th declension)

  1. pig (esp. Sus scrofa domesticus)
    mājas cūkadomestic pig
    vaislas cūkabreeding pig
    meža cūkawild boar (lit. forest pig)
    cūka kviec, rukšķthe pig is squeaking, squealing
    cūku kūts, aizgaldspig pen, pigsty
    cūku šķirnespig breed
    cūku taukilard (lit. pig fat)
    nobarot cūkuto fatten a pig
    kaut cūkuto slaughter a pig
    cūkas gaļa, cūkgaļapig meat (= pork)
    cūka viņu sagaidīja sīkiem rukšķiemthe pig greeted him with small squeals
  2. female pig, sow
    cūka ar sivēniemthe sow with the piglets
  3. (figuratively) pig (a dirty, unhygienic person; also, a villainous man; colloquially also an unattractive female)
    viņu nosauca pazīstamu cilvēku klātbūtnē par cūkuhe was called a pig in the presence of people he knew
  4. (only plural) the name of a certain card game
    cūkas” jeb “duraki” ir kāršu spēle, kuras mērķis ir atbrīvoties no rokās esošajām kārtīmpigs,” or “fools,” is a card game whose objective it is to get rid of all the cards in one's hands

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “cūka”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7