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See also: calìgo and Caligo



Borrowed from Latin cālīgō (darkness). Doublet of garua.


caligo (uncountable)

  1. (medicine, obsolete) dimness or obscurity of sight, caused by a speck on the cornea
  2. A butterfly of the genus Caligo.

See also[edit]

Part or all of this entry has been imported from the 1913 edition of Webster’s Dictionary, which is now free of copyright and hence in the public domain. The imported definitions may be significantly out of date, and any more recent senses may be completely missing.
(See the entry for caligo”, in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1913, →OCLC.)




Formation from an earlier adjective is possible, similarly to several similar nouns in -īgō, examples at rōbīgō, with the verb deriving from the noun, as cālīgō (noun) +‎ . A possible reading in Pacuvius suggests earlier verb semantics as “I make dark”, consistent with this construction. Possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kel- (dark spot), suggested to be connected to columba (dove, pigeon), Sanskrit कलङ्क (kalaṅka, dark blemish), Serbo-Croatian kâl / ка̑л ("mud, dirt").[1][2][3] Various further Indo-European cognates have been suggested, such as Ancient Greek κελαινός (kelainós, dark, black), Ancient Greek κηλίς (kēlís, spot, stain) and the rare adjective Latin cā̆lidus (having a white spot on the forehead).



cālīgō f (genitive cālīginis); third declension

  1. fog, mist, vapor
  2. darkness, gloom
  3. (figuratively) inability to perceive mentally


Third-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative cālīgō cālīginēs
Genitive cālīginis cālīginum
Dative cālīginī cālīginibus
Accusative cālīginem cālīginēs
Ablative cālīgine cālīginibus
Vocative cālīgō cālīginēs




cālīgō (present infinitive cālīgāre, perfect active cālīgāvī, supine cālīgātum); first conjugation

  1. to (emit) steam
  2. to be dark or gloomy
  3. to grope about; have poor eyesight


   Conjugation of cālīgō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cālīgō cālīgās cālīgat cālīgāmus cālīgātis cālīgant
imperfect cālīgābam cālīgābās cālīgābat cālīgābāmus cālīgābātis cālīgābant
future cālīgābō cālīgābis cālīgābit cālīgābimus cālīgābitis cālīgābunt
perfect cālīgāvī cālīgāvistī cālīgāvit cālīgāvimus cālīgāvistis cālīgāvērunt,
pluperfect cālīgāveram cālīgāverās cālīgāverat cālīgāverāmus cālīgāverātis cālīgāverant
future perfect cālīgāverō cālīgāveris cālīgāverit cālīgāverimus cālīgāveritis cālīgāverint
passive present cālīgor cālīgāris,
cālīgātur cālīgāmur cālīgāminī cālīgantur
imperfect cālīgābar cālīgābāris,
cālīgābātur cālīgābāmur cālīgābāminī cālīgābantur
future cālīgābor cālīgāberis,
cālīgābitur cālīgābimur cālīgābiminī cālīgābuntur
perfect cālīgātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect cālīgātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect cālīgātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cālīgem cālīgēs cālīget cālīgēmus cālīgētis cālīgent
imperfect cālīgārem cālīgārēs cālīgāret cālīgārēmus cālīgārētis cālīgārent
perfect cālīgāverim cālīgāverīs cālīgāverit cālīgāverīmus cālīgāverītis cālīgāverint
pluperfect cālīgāvissem cālīgāvissēs cālīgāvisset cālīgāvissēmus cālīgāvissētis cālīgāvissent
passive present cālīger cālīgēris,
cālīgētur cālīgēmur cālīgēminī cālīgentur
imperfect cālīgārer cālīgārēris,
cālīgārētur cālīgārēmur cālīgārēminī cālīgārentur
perfect cālīgātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect cālīgātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cālīgā cālīgāte
future cālīgātō cālīgātō cālīgātōte cālīgantō
passive present cālīgāre cālīgāminī
future cālīgātor cālīgātor cālīgantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives cālīgāre cālīgāvisse cālīgātūrum esse cālīgārī cālīgātum esse cālīgātum īrī
participles cālīgāns cālīgātūrus cālīgātus cālīgandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
cālīgandī cālīgandō cālīgandum cālīgandō cālīgātum cālīgātū

Derived terms[edit]


  • caligo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • caligo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • caligo in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • caligo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to obscure the mental vision: mentis quasi luminibus officere (vid. sect. XIII. 6) or animo caliginem offundere
  1. ^ Roberts, Edward A. (2014) A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Spanish Language with Families of Words based on Indo-European Roots, Xlibris Corporation, →ISBN
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) “547-548”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 2, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, pages 547-548
  3. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) “kalyo”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 186