- A political entity (a state) associated with a particular civilization
- 2009, LA Times, 22 November, Martin Jacques 
- Although China has described itself as a nation-state for the last century, it is in essence a civilization-state. The longest continually existing polity in the world, it dates to 221 BC and the victory of the Qin. Unlike Western nation-states, China's sense of identity comes from its long history as a civilization-state.
- 2010, Newsweek, 25 January, Martin Jacques
- China may call itself a nation-state (although only for the past century), but in essence it is a civilization-state dating back at least two millennia.
- 2009, LA Times, 22 November, Martin Jacques