close

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English[edit]

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Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English closen (to close, enclose), partly continuing (in altered form) earlier Middle English clusen (to close) (from Old English clȳsan (to close, shut); compare beclose, foreclose, etc.), and partly derived from Middle English clos (close, shut up, confined, secret, adjective), from Old French clos (close, confined, adjective), from Latin clausus (shut up, past participle), from claudere (to bar, block, close, enclose, bring an end to, confine), from Proto-Indo-European *klāw- (key, hook, nail), related to Latin clāvis (key, deadbolt, bar), clāvus (nail, peg), claustrum (bar, bolt, barrier), claustra (dam, wall, barricade, stronghold). Cognate with Ancient Greek κλείς (kleís, bar, bolt, key), German schließen (to close, conclude, lock), Dutch sluiten (to close, conclude, lock). Partially replaced Old English lūcan (to close, lock, enclose), (whence English lock).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

close (third-person singular simple present closes, present participle closing, simple past and past participle closed)

  1. (physical) To remove a gap.
    1. To obstruct (an opening).
    2. To move so that an opening is closed.
      Close the door behind you when you leave.
      Jim was listening to headphones with his eyes closed.
    3. To make (e.g. a gap) smaller.
      The runner in second place is closing the gap on the leader.
      to close the ranks of an army
    4. To grapple; to engage in close combat.
      • 1856-1858, William H. Prescott, History of the Reign of Phillip II
        They boldly closed in a hand-to-hand contest.
  2. (social) To finish, to terminate.
    1. To put an end to; to conclude; to complete; to finish; to consummate.
      close the session;   to close a bargain;   to close a course of instruction
    2. To come to an end.
      The debate closed at six o'clock.
    3. (marketing) To make a sale.
    4. (baseball, pitching) To make the final outs, usually three, of a game.
      He has closed the last two games for his team.
    5. (figuratively, computing) To terminate an application, window, file or database connection, etc.
  3. To come or gather around; to enclose; to encompass; to confine.
  4. (surveying) To have a vector sum of 0; that is, to form a closed polygon.
Synonyms[edit]
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Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

close (plural closes)

  1. An end or conclusion.
    We owe them our thanks for bringing the project to a successful close.
    • 1878, Thomas Babington Macaulay, “Francis Atterbury”, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition:
      His long and troubled life was drawing to a close.
  2. The manner of shutting; the union of parts; junction.
    • 1616, George Chapman, Odyssey
      The doors of plank were; their close exquisite.
  3. A grapple in wrestling.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Francis Bacon to this entry?)
  4. (music) The conclusion of a strain of music; cadence.
  5. (music) A double bar marking the end.
  6. (aviation, travel) The time when checkin staff will no longer accept passengers for a flight.
Synonyms[edit]
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Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from French clos, from Latin clausum, participle of claudō.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

close (comparative closer, superlative closest)

  1. (now rare) Closed, shut.
    • 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Matthew chapter 8:
      There is nothinge so close, that shall not be openned, and nothinge so hyd that shall not be knowen.
    • 1847, Charlotte Brontë Jane Eyre, chapter 1:
      I mounted into the window-seat: gathering up my feet, I sat cross-legged, like a Turk; and, having drawn the red moreen curtain nearly close, I was shrined in double retirement.
  2. Narrow; confined.
    a close alley; close quarters
  3. At a little distance; near.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 7, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      […] St. Bede's at this period of its history was perhaps the poorest and most miserable parish in the East End of London. Close-packed, crushed by the buttressed height of the railway viaduct, rendered airless by huge walls of factories, it at once banished lively interest from a stranger's mind and left only a dull oppression of the spirit.
    • 2013 June 1, “End of the peer show”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8838, page 71:
      Finance is seldom romantic. But the idea of peer-to-peer lending comes close. This is an industry that brings together individual savers and lenders on online platforms. Those that want to borrow are matched with those that want to lend.
    Is your house close?
  4. Intimate; well-loved.
    He is a close friend.
    1. (law) Of a corporation or other business entity, closely held.
  5. Oppressive; without motion or ventilation; causing a feeling of lassitude.
    • 1626, Francis Bacon, Sylva Sylvarum, Or, A Naturall Historie: In Ten Centuries
      If the rooms be low-roofed, or full of windows and doors, the one maketh the air close, [...] and the other maketh it exceeding unequal.
  6. (Ireland, England, Scotland, weather) Hot, humid, with no wind.
  7. (linguistics, phonetics, of a vowel) Articulated with the tongue body relatively close to the hard palate.
  8. Strictly confined; carefully guarded.
    a close prisoner
  9. (obsolete) Out of the way of observation; secluded; secret; hidden.
  10. Nearly equal; almost evenly balanced.
    a close contest
  11. Short.
    to cut grass or hair close
  12. (archaic) Dense; solid; compact.
  13. (archaic) Concise; to the point.
    close reasoning
    • 1690, John Dryden, Translations (Preface)
      Where the original is close no version can reach it in the same compass.
  14. (dated) Difficult to obtain.
    Money is close.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Bartlett to this entry?)
  15. (dated) Parsimonious; stingy.
    • 1820, John Keats, “Isabella; or, The Pot of Basil. A Story from Boccaccio.”, in Lamia, Isabella, the Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems, London: Printed [by Thomas Davison] for Taylor and Hessey, [], OCLC 927360557, stanza XVII, page 57:
      Yet were these Florentines as self-retired / In hungry pride and gainful cowardice, / As two close Hebrews in that land inspired, / Paled in and vineyarded from beggar-spies; [...]
    • 1837, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Twice-Told Tales, Volume I: "Mr. Higginbotham's Catastrophe":
      [...] he was a crusty old fellow, as close as a vice.
    • 1852-1853, Charles Dickens, Bleak House
      Though a hard-grained man, close, dry, and silent, he can enjoy old wine with the best. He has a priceless bin of port in some artful cellar under the Fields, which is one of his many secrets.
  16. Adhering strictly to a standard or original; exact.
    a close translation
    (Can we find and add a quotation of John Locke to this entry?)
  17. Accurate; careful; precise; also, attentive; undeviating; strict.
    The patient was kept under close observation.
  18. Marked, evident.
Synonyms[edit]
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Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

close (plural closes)

  1. (now rare) An enclosed field.
  2. (chiefly British) A street that ends in a dead end.
  3. (Scotland) A very narrow alley between two buildings, often overhung by one of the buildings above the ground floor.
  4. (Scotland) The common staircase in a tenement.
  5. A cathedral close.
  6. (law) The interest which one may have in a piece of ground, even though it is not enclosed.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Bouvier to this entry?)
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

close

  1. feminine singular of clos

Verb[edit]

close

  1. first-person singular present subjunctive of clore
  2. third-person singular present subjunctive of clore

Participle[edit]

close

  1. feminine singular of the past participle of clore

Anagrams[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Noun[edit]

close

  1. plural of cloth

Portuguese[edit]

Noun[edit]

close m (plural closes)

  1. (photography) close-up (photography in which the subject is shown at a large scale)
  2. attitude

Synonyms[edit]